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Other items from this collection
National Wool Museum
Clothing - Overcoat, Dominex, c.1970
This overcoat was designed and tailored by Dominex, a company that sold clothing in high end department stores such as Myer and David Jones in the 1940s through to the 2000s. As pictured in the accompanying advertising, Dominex looked to produce clothes for women to “casually, confidently wear … the exquisite styling and superb tailoring of… Dominex Coats”. This sentiment was carried by the company for more than 60 years. Amanda Morgan, a director of the Dominex fashion label in an interview from 2003 said “Not everybody wants sass, or sex, or high fashion for that matter. Au contraire. Our customers will be stylish, sophisticated and womanly, but we don’t do shoestring straps or asymmetrical lines." Dominex was a label specialising in exceptional quality "traditional" dressing for corporate wear. Their clothes looked to provide women with a return to the tried and true values of elegant, unpretentious, classic dressing. "Our look is European-influenced," Morgan explained further. "Inspired by Armani, Valentino, Chanel and Escada. Suits have been specially dyed in France to ensure the perfect shade of ice blue, lemon, grey, or slate. Fabrics are natural, silk and linen. Shapes are stylish, with an almost 1930s feel; classic pants, silk shirts, structured overcoats with elegant-length” Returning to this overcoat, it has a label on the inside which reads “Pure Wool Material by Godfrey Hirst of Geelong”. Nowadays Godfrey Hirst produce flooring products and are the largest manufacturer and exporter of residential and commercial carpets in Australasia. They have expanded into hard flooring and left their fashion days behind. This overcoat serves as a useful example of a different time for the company; before they made the change to concentrating exclusively on flooring, when they produced fabrics to be tailored for the height of Australian fashion. This overcoat was purchased and worn by Joan Waller, aunty of the donor, Kim Rosenow. Kim said her aunty was from Ballarat but frequently shopped in Melbourne to keep up with the latest trends. Her aunty Joan fitted the target demographic of Dominex well, as she needed to look sophisticated and elegant at social events and work. Kim donated the overcoat to the National Wool Museum in 2021.
Green singled breasted overcoat with a narrow overlap and one column of buttons for fastening. The overcoat features notched lapels of a medium width and two large buttons of a green & dark green marble. The overcoat has two semi-visible jetted pockets at the hips. Internally, the overcoat features a black silk lining for comfort. It also features a stitched patch on the left side of the opening which reads “Pure Wool Material by Godfrey Hirst of Geelong”. At the collar, another patch reads “Dominex REGD”. At the cuffs, the overcoat finishes in a type of gauntlet cuff which stretches back over 200mm. The decorative finish utilises no buttons and has thick piping to accentuate this design feature. The overcoat finishes with a simple invisible hem at the bottom.
Wording, gold. Patch stitched at collar: “DomineX / REGD.” Wording, black. Patch stitched at left off opening: “PURE WOOL MATERIAL BY / Godfrey Hirst / OF GEELONG”
dominex, fashion, women's corporate wear, godfrey hirst, overcoat, wool clothing
National Wool Museum
Booklet - Catalogue, 1978
This catalogue was produced by the South Australian wool auctioning company Elders, Smith & Co. Ltd. It accompanied their celebration of a century of wool sales in 1978. The first wool auction in South Australia took place at Elders a century earlier, on the 15th of October 1878. It was covered in detail by The South Australian Register. At the sale, 1976 bales of wool were offered in what was the beginning of the wool storage and brokerage system in South Australia. Elders, Smith & Co. was established in 1839 by Alexander Lang Elder. Born in 1815 in Scotland, he moved to Australia at age 24 and set up Elders in Port Adelaide. Interestingly, the company’s original site is now the South Australian Maritime Museum. Elders’ business partner was Robert Barr Smith. Also born in Scotland, he moved to Australia in 1854 at the age of 30. Smith was an important part of the Company’s first wool sale. Smith made statements at the auction for South Australia to have a proper wool industry; with a purpose-built wool store, auction house and for the state to be able to supply its own products. This was met with a “Hear, hear” from the crowd at the auction. This statement is reflected upon within the catalogue. The catalogue itself also contains images of the company’s first wool auction, an outside image of Elder’s Wool Warehouse in Port Adelaide as well as an image of the Show Floor inside of this Port Adelaide warehouse. The catalogue also contains a quote from Elders’ Wool Manager for Victoria and Riverina, Murray Jewster. He discusses how the company is proud of its history and looking forward to its future in assisting both wool buyers and sellers. The quote also highlights Elders shift from being an Adelaide focussed business, growing to span the width of Australia.
4 page booklet. Yellow paper with black and red print.
south australian wool auctioning, elders smith & co. ltd., south australian wool producing, alexander lang elder, robert barr smith
National Wool Museum
Clothing - Jacket, Mrs Jean Inglis, 1988
This jacket is by the prolific spinner and weaver Jean Inglis. It has been woven with a warp of commercially brought wool & a weft of hand spun Corriedale. It is completed in a Swedish lace style of weaving. The highlight of the jacket is the blue section of fabric on the top left shoulder of the wearer, which works down to the bottom right hip. This pattern looks like long thin individual separate sections of fabric stitched to the jacket; however, only one section of fabric has been added. A dying technique has been utilised to give the appearance of multiple sections. This Japanese dyeing technique is called Shibori, “to wring, squeeze or press". It is a manual tie-dyeing technique, which produces several different patterns on fabric. The specific pattern on this fabric is known as Kumo Shibori. It utilises bound resistance. This technique involves folding sections of the cloth very finely and evenly. Then the cloth is bound in very close sections. The result is a very specific spider-like design. This design requires very precise technique. Specific to this jacket, the fabric for the dyed section was made with the same fabric as the rest of the jacket. A section of the excess fabric was concertina wrapped around a 100mm pipe and tied up before dying. This gives the consistent straight blue lines, with no bleed from the dye. The sections were then sewed into the jacket with the occasional sequin added for additional decoration and glamour. The jacket won 1st prize at the 1988 Geelong Show. Jean was assisted by the dress maker Ruth Randell with some of the design and sewing. Jean always found sewing “a bit of a bore”. The jacket also has an attached swing tag. It was added to provide information to the judges at the Melbourne Show on how the jacket was created. It comes complete with Jean’s self-proclaimed terrible handwriting. It was donated to the National Wool Museum in 2021.
Cream singled breasted jacket with no overlap. The jacket has no column of buttons for fastening, or lapels. It is designed to be plain, to not draw attention. The jacket is highlighted by the Shibori dyed waves on the top left shoulder of the wearer, which works down to the bottom right hip. This blue dyed section of fabric is dotted with the occasional blue sequin. Internally, the jacket features a white silk lining for comfort. The jacket ends in a straight cut hem, including at the cuffs. The jacket has an attached swing tag. The swing tag is cream with a printed thin black boarder. Within the boarder, handwriting in black ink is found. It has a hole punch in the top left corner of the swing tag for attaching to the jacket.
hand spun, hand weaving, textile design, textile production, shibori, kumo shibori
National Wool Museum
Tool - Spinning Wheel, c.1980
This spinning wheel originates from New Zealand; however, it has no distinguishing features relating to its creator such as an inscription, so its exact maker is not known. Gill Stange remembers buying the wheel on Bridge Road in Richmond, approximately 30 years ago. Gill had joined her local Spinners and Weavers Guild after the Ash Wednesday bushfires of 1983. She was a then resident of Mount Macedon and lost everything in the fires. Moving to Melbourne to get away from the scene of much pain, Gill was also in need of a new hobby to help occupy her mind. That is when spinning and weaving entered her life. The local Spinners and Weavers Guild was a great support network for her and with their recommendation, she purchased her own spinning wheel. Her passion was started, and the wheel was to become a treasured item in Gill’s home. She had several spinning wheels within her possession over the years, however, this wheel was her first and always her favourite. When the time came for Gill to downsize, there was simply no longer room for her spinning wheel. This is when she decided to donate the wheel to the National Wool Museum. Gill remembers one highlight was weaving a tablecloth from a traditional German design. It took her two years to complete, with Gill spinning all the wool herself on this wheel. The tablecloth won the first prize in the Melbourne Show in 1987. Gill also used the wheel to teach programs to school children on how to spin and knit wool. She would take the easily transported little wheel, and its accompanying seat, with her to schools. Its small size enabled her to teach children to knit and spin, bringing others the joy that spinning had brought her. Not just limited to schools, Gill also taught programs with the wheel here at the National Wool Museum. It is a fitting home for the wheel, which Gill donated to the National Wool Museum in 2021.
Dark varnished wood in a Castle style spinning wheel. The wheel has 8 small spokes which meet a thick outside rim. The outside rim has four golden disc weights on the bottom edge, to aid in the turning of the wheel. The spinning wheel has four legs of turned wood giving a sculptural form, a design pattern which is continued throughout. The wheel has a single medium sized foot pedal. This pedal is well worn with varnish missing from years of use. The wheel is completed with its accompanying chair. Made of the same dark varnished wood, its legs are also of turned wood, continuing the design pattern and uniting the two objects. The chair is very simple outside of the legs, with a medium size base and a thin backrest ending in a rounded head. The chair’s varnish is also starting to fade from years of use. The chair is small, designed to keep the spinning wheel operator at the appropriate height when spinning on the equally small and compact Castle style spinning wheel. Additional parts were donated with the Spinning Wheel. - 3 x Lazy Kates - Spare Maiden. - 450mm Niddy Noddy - Steel teeth brush
spinning wool, spinning wheel, ash wednesday, mount macedon, textile production
National Wool Museum
Tool - Drum Carder, Kacoonda, c.1980
This drum carder was purchase by Gill Stange at the Whittlesea Show in the late 1980s. The carder allowed Gill to spin fleece from her own Merino sheep. Merino is a difficult wool to spin when compared to other popular varieties, such as Corriedale or crossbred wool. The carder helped her to tease out the fleece, slightly separating the fibres before spinning. It also allowed for easier removal of foreign matters, such as seeds and mud. Little is known about the Kacoonda brand who produced the carder. They were Australian based and appear to have only operated throughout the 1980s.
The carder has one large central roller with two smaller rollers on either side. The larger roller rotates in the inverse direction of the two smaller rollers. The carding cloth is a mint green in which closely spaced wire pins are embedded. The shape, length, diameter, and spacing of these wire pins is that of a standard carder. On one side of the carder a handle is found that is used to spin the three rollers. Additionally on this side is a sticker which reads “The Kacoonda Carder. Subject to Patent Action”. A Silver grip for the easy movement of the carder can also be found high on this side. On the opposite side of the carder, many nuts and plates can be found which hold the rollers in place. This is opposed to the other side of the carder, which has a brown plastic cover plate attached underneath the handle. The walls providing a path for the carded wool to follow when being carded, are made of wood. The carder comes complete with a teasing tool. This tool has the same mint green carding cloth as the carder’s rollers. It is attached to a simple wood handle for ease of use.
Wording, green, printed. Sticker on side of carder. “The Kacoonda Carder / SUBJECT TO PATENT ACTION”
whittlesea show, drum carder, textile production, carding wool, kacoonda
National Wool Museum
Sculpture - Bollard, Jan Mitchell, The Lost Bollards, 1999
Geelong is famous for its bollards. Created by local artist Jan Mitchell, the colourful bollards spot the foreshore, representing a fascinating and fun chronicle of the city’s past. Few people know that Mitchell planned for a flock of sheep to be part of her public art project. The wool industry is an important part of Geelong’s history, so Mitchell thought what better than a flock of sheep to welcome people to the city. The flock (and a Shepard) were to be placed out on the Melbourne-Geelong highway, near Lara, to welcome travellers to the city. The sheep would then be scattered along the road as a wayfinding signal to bring people to Geelong. When traffic authorities heard the plan for bollard sheep along the road, they squashed the project as a potential distraction for drivers. Another flock was also suggested for the hills of the eastern gardens, overlooking the bay. This was also disapproved; so Mitchell only ever partially completed four sheep bollards. The bollards are remnants of Jan Mitchell’s flock of sheep. The sheep also show the evolution of one of Geelong’s most iconic art installations. From the first sheep showing the raw timber of the old Yarra Street pier, to the sheep without a face, through to the completed sheep, it is possible to trace Mitchell’s process in the preparation of the bollards. The lost bollards form part of the National Wool Museum’s unique collection.
The first bollard is the least complete, still in its original timber colour. From the central cylindrical shape, an additional wedge protrudes. This unpainted wedge forms what would have been the face of the sheep, with an ear present on either side that would have been painted white. Presently they are a bare metal. No legs are present on this bollard. The second and third bollard are completed to a similar level. They have a central cylindrical shape with an additional wedge protruding from the front of the timber. This wedge forms what would have been the face of the sheep, with an ear present on either side. The face and ears have been painted white but the finer details such as the eyes have not been added. These bollards bodies have also been painted white and have their legs attached. The legs are thin metal cylinders, approximately 50mm in diameter and 500mm long. The fourth bollard Is complete. It has the same central cylindrical shape with an additional wedge protruding from the front of the timber. This wedge forms the completed face of the sheep, with an ear present on either side that has been painted white. The face also features completed painted eyes. This bollard has its legs attached. The legs are thin metal cylinders, approximately 50mm in diameter and 500mm long.
geelong, bollards, geelong's bollards, jan mitchell
National Wool Museum
Book, Knitting, Patons Knitting Book no. 345
This book was owned by the late Dr Elizabeth Kerr and was donated to the Museum by the executor of her estate, Margaret Cameron. This book was produced by Patons and Baldwins and contains knitting patterns for womens hat, scarves and gloves.
Patons KNITTING BOOK NO. 345 / "VELASQUEZ" - See page 12. / P&B / WOOLS / 1'4d
knitting handicrafts - history, patons and baldwins (australia) ltd, knitting, handicrafts - history
National Wool Museum
Textile - Community Textile Tapestry, Lisa Kendal et al, WARM, 2016
WARM was a community textile art project that saw over 250 knitters come together to create a beautiful collage tapestry. Made entirely from wool, the artwork contains more than 1000 individual hand knitted sections. The project takes aim at global warming, it highlights both the causes and solutions for us to create a sustainable and safe climate for future generations. Lisa Kendal, the co-creator of the project, said “One of the problems in the world is that we have forgotten how to warm ourselves with wool. We have become too dependent on fossil fuels (for heating)”. This is the key idea surrounding the project. WARM began as two large scale images created by Lars Stenberg. The first image is a landscape scarred by coal mining. The second image is the same landscape only many decades later. Regeneration and regrowth have taken over the landscape and hidden the past coal mine completely. In its place is a beautiful landscape including trees, native flowers, a lake, lots of greenery and wind turbines. From March to the end of August in 2016, knitters worked hard to create the over one thousand pieces that came together to form the final tapestry. The pieces were all designed by Fibre Artist Georgie Nicolson of Tikki Knitting Designs, who converted the second image of the healed landscape into patterns for the 250 plus knitters to follow. These patterns included unusual designs such as gum leaves, trees, native flowers and even the wind turbines. During several days of installation, the knitted pieces were stitched together by Lars Stenberg over a picture of the first image of the operational coal mine. They worked to create the second image of the renewed landscape; like an enormous collage. The WARM project was donated to the National Wool Museum in 2021. It was a much-loved hanging within the Ballarat Hospital for many years before coming to the museum. More information about the project can be found on the following website. http://www.seam.org.au/warm
The tapestry is made from 1000+ hand knitted sections stitched together to make an image. In the foreground of this image is a large gum tree that stretches from the bottom left to the top right corner. The trunk of this tree follows the left edge of the tapestry, with foliage from the gum tree spanning its top border. The bottom third of the tapestry is predominantly green grass with yellow, pink and red flowers providing sporadic colour. The middle third encompasses a lake, with orange colours surrounding the banks of the water as opposed to the green grasses of the bottom third. To the right of the lake are wind turbines. The top third of the tapestry is blue sky with white clouds. It also contains the previously described gum tree leaves. Each piece of the tapestry is 100% wool and was hand knitted and stitched together. The Tapestry is accompanied by an oil painting on canvas. It is a painting that matches the tapestry and served as a template for the final tapestry. Finally, the tapestry is accompanied by another pointing on wood board. This final panting is of a coal mine. This is the setting before regeneration and regrowth have reclaimed this site, which is the theme captured in the final tapestry. In the foreground of the coal mine painting is the same gum tree described in the tapestry; however, it is grey and sickle with only 4 leaves visible at the top border, compared to the numerous leaves in the tapestry. Also in the foreground is a broken barb wire fence adding to the unwelcoming nature of the site. The colour scheme of this image is of dark greys and browns. A coal fired power plant can be seen in the final third of the image with four chimneys emitting plumes of smoke into the sky. In front of this power plant is the spiral shape of a coal mine, burrowing deep into the earth’s crust. Inside of the coal mine 3 yellow trucks are seen mining and transporting coal to the top of the mine.
warm, community textile tapestry, knitting, community artwork, global warming
National Wool Museum
Functional object - Spinning Wheel, Philip Elford, 1976-7
Jackie Kerin's (donor's) story. In 1973, I was in my late teens and while I’d moved to Sydney from Melbourne, to begin my first year of drama studies at the National Institute of Dramatic Art. My parents had moved to Lake Bunga, a few kilometers north of Lakes Entrance (Victoria). On my first holiday visit to Bunga, I called into the Jolly Jumbuck Country Craft Centre in Bairnsdale http://jumbukwool.com.au/history. I was entranced by the place and spent the following weeks learning to spin lumpy wool on an Ashford Wheel. By the end of the holidays, I had my own Ashford and it travelled with me back to Sydney. After graduation, I returned to Melbourne and the hippy “back to nature” movement was in full swing; there were many shops and galleries selling handmade woollen items and pottery etc. So I found an outlet for my pieces. Sometime in 1976-77, I met a spinner and weaver of Swiss origin (I think) – her name was Ingeborg Guber (not sure of the spelling). She had a small gallery/shop at Brighton Beach where she worked, with her pet duck for company. Ingeborg had an upright Philip Elford wheel; an Australian wheel crafted from Acacia melanoxylon (blackwood). I was smitten and ordered one. I have a memory of Philip driving to Hampton from Ballarat to make the delivery. I used this wheel for years but as time and enthusiasm for spinning waned, the wheel became a decorative item in the house. Then in the 90s, and with my drama training, I set myself up travelling to schools and festivals, museums and galleries as a storyteller. The spinning wheel had a new life accompanying me on my adventures. For many children, familiar with references to spinning in fairy tales, seeing the little Philip Elford upright was magical. The wheel was donated to the National Wool Museum in 2021.
Vertical tripod leg spinning wheel. 6 spoke wheel with three bobbins. Inscription “Philip Elford Ballart” can be read in gold text stamped to the base of the wheel.
Wording, stamped, gold. Philip / Elford / Ballart
spinning wheel, textile production, hobby textiles, aciacia melanoxylon (blackwood)
National Wool Museum
Textile - Quilt, Judith Oke et al, Isolation Quilt, 2020-2021
In 2020 during the period of lockdown due to COVID the National Wool Museum asked their volunteers to make and donate blocks made from a variety of materials found in their homes, for an ISO quilt. The NWM reached out to the patchwork and quilter community to find a local quilter to sew the donated blocks together. The quilt is sewn together and quilted by Judith Oke, 2020-2021. Judith is a local patchwork and quilter and a member of Geelong Patchwork & Quilters Guild. Through the process she was inspired by the tradition of wagga quilts, where bits and pieces are stitched together, sometimes lined with whatever the sewer found available, such as clothing and sacking, to provide warmth. In construction of the finished quilt the challenge was combining 10 inch blocks made from a variety of materials, with uneven sizing. The aim was to combine these very different blocks into a harmonious whole. To this end a light and dark pattern was planned, with the blocks to be sewn onto a blanket. The choice to layer the blocks over each other, rather than sew an even seam was aimed at emphasizing the make do nature of these ISO blocks. Due to the weight of the blanket a decision was made to sew the blocks onto a base before the whole was stitched onto the blanket. The blanket was sourced from NWM donations. The rich, red of the blanket provides a bright, warm background for the colourful squares. Some of the light weight blocks were backed with iron-on interfacing to strengthen them for sewing. The edges of two of the woven squares were blanket stitched with knitting wool. The 10 inch donated blocks/squares were machine sewn to a cotton sheet base, with liberal use of blanket stitching, as the blanket was too heavy to sew the blocks directly onto the blanket. The base with squares was then machine sewn onto the red blanket backing.
Various multi coloured and designed patchwork squares sewn onto a red woollen blanket.
isolation, covid, quilt, wool
National Wool Museum
Book - Fabric Sample Book, c.1920
A Textile Designer’s Fabric Sample Book is an important tool for keeping a record of past designs. This is useful in order to showcase a designer’s previous work; functioning like a portfolio or a résumé. They also serve as a source of inspiration, sometimes even providing a template to re-release iconic designs. The National Wool Museum has a large collection of Fabric Sample Books. They reveal the colour and daring designs produced by textile mills across various time periods. This Fabric Sample Book is from the 1920s and gives us insights into design trends that are now over a century old.
The cover of this book has a brown/grey marble. It carries many marks and oils from the hands, after more than a century of use. A strip of red tape has been added to the spine of the book in order to give it integrity. The book internally has white pages that have turned a brown/cream with age. These pages have a faint blue line printed horizontally across them, to assist with handwriting. The contents of the pages are fabric samples which have been staple to them, as well as handwriting with a blue ink. The pages also include technical drawings, relating to the fabric samples and how such samples were woven together.
textile design, textile manufacture
National Wool Museum
Clothing - Jacket, 1978
The wool for this jacket began on the back of two sheep many kilometres apart. The first fleece for the warp was shorn from a single Merino at Currotha in Moree, NSW. The wool was 21-22 micron and the bloodline is a cross between Bundemar, Rossmore and Eural. The second sheep that provided wool for the weft was shorn in Beaufort, Victoria. It was a single Corriedale fleece shorn at Niawanda. The distance between these two towns is approximately 1250kms; a 15-hour car ride between paddocks. The two fleeces were spun and weaved together by the donor’s mother, Marjorie Allnutt. A level of talent is required to spin Merino fleeces. It is easier to spin cross bred wool, such as Corriedale, because it is less dense and much easier to comb, card and then tease out for a spinning wheel. The donor Philip Allnutt had a suit tailored out of the completed fabric at Ravensdale J & Son, 37 Swanson Street, Melbourne. The tailor was then a member of the Master Tailors Federation of Victoria. The business closed around 1986. Adding to the jacket’s story is its relationship to the household board game “Squatter”. Marjorie Allnutt was the sister-in-law of Robert Crofton Lloyd, the inventor of the wool themed boardgame. With more than 500,000 games sold in Australia as of 2007, it is the most successful board game ever produced in the country. The original “Squatter” board game is located within the National Wool Museum’s Collection. Philip Allnutt donated the Jacket to the National Wool Museum Collection in 2021.
Cream singled breasted jacket with a narrow overlap and one column of buttons for fastening. The jacket features notched lapels of a medium width and two buttons of a cream & brown marble. The jacket has three visible pockets. A jetted pocket with no flap is on the right breast. A further two jetted no flap pockets finish an inch above the hem, on either side of the opening. Internally, the jacket features a further two pockets and a white silk lining for comfort. At the cuffs, the jacket utilises another 2 buttons of the same cream & brown marble.
merino, currotha, moree, nsw, niawanda, corriedale, beaufort, victoria, hand spun, hand weaved
National Wool Museum
Photograph - Photographs, C. Glover and Sons Pty. Ltd, 1890-1944
C. Glover and Sons Pty. Ltd. was founded on Brougham Street, Geelong c.1870. They operated as a wool and sheepskin storeroom situated on both sides of Brougham Street; where the current Elders building is located. The store was owned and operated by Joshua Glover with his brother Cyrus. A third brother Arthur also worked at the store. It was a very successful business and employed up to 40 men at its peak. Cyrus Glover died quite young, around 54, with his son Howard taking his place in the partnership at 23. During the Second World War the business was requisitioned by the Australian Government. Their wool was utilised to produce defence uniforms for Commonwealth personnel C. Glover and Sons was a very successful business which reluctantly closed its doors around 1975, as a result of the wool industry taking a downward turn Australia wide. It was decided by the family that this was the only option at the time. Howard Glover was Jan Glover’s (donor) father in law. Jan Glover donated these images to the National Wool Museum in 2021.
Image 1 is a black and white image of a truck with 11 men standing in front. The truck is loaded with dumped bales of wool. The image is taken outside of the C. Glover and Sons' building. The reverse of the image is stamped. Image 2 is a black and white image of 2 rows of men. The first row of six men are sitting in their cricket whites. The second row of 10 men are standing in suits bar one-man 3rd from the right, who is also in his cricket whites. The image is taken on a cricket oval with the grandstand visible in the background. Image 3 is a black and white image of 12 men. The first 3 men are sitting on wool bales while the other 9 stand behind. The image shows the word 'record' spray painted on a piece of timber hanging behind the man. This is expressed in the men's faces with emotions of joy and celebration coming through. The men are standing in front of large machinery presumed to be used for wool pressing/dumping. Image 4 is a black and white image of 15 men and 5 horses in front of two large white sheds with triangular rooves. The men are all standing with the majority having their arms crossed. On the left is a cart carrying sheep skins. On the right are two smaller carts that appear to be carrying wool bales. Image 5 is a black and white image of a wool and hides storeroom. The ceiling is lined with multiple sheep skins while the floor has multiple wool bales neatly stored. In the background of the image, two men can be seen inspecting wool while sitting at a small white table. Behind this, 5 men are standing in a crowd while another man is seen to the left of the men at the table. This separate man is standing inspecting a wool bale. Image 6 is a black and white image of a wool storeroom. Numerous bales of wool can be seen open for inspection stacked semi-neatly one next to another. 6 men can be seen inspecting a bale of wool in a group. Another 5 men are present in the room performing separate duties.
Image 1 Reverse. Black Stamp INTERNATION FOTO-NEWS / H. A SOETEKOUW / 52 GHERINGHAP ST., / GEELONG / PHONE X 2920 Image 2 Wording. Typed black lettering. Geelong Buyers and Brokers Cricket Team. Image 3 Wording. Blue handwriting RECORD OF PRESSING FOR ONE DAY / FORTY BALES / 1910 Image 4 Wording. Blue handwriting. 1890 Image 5 Wording. Typed black lettering. Messrs. Moss & R. Allan. / Government Sheepskin Appraisers. 1918. Image 6 Wording. Black Handwriting. C. GLOVER & SONS. APPRAISEMENT NO. 50 14/12/1944. / GOVERNMENT SHEEPSKIN APPRAISERS. MESSERS. R. BORLAND & H. V. McCALLUM / GEELONG REPRESENTATIVES. J. GLOVER & H. J. GLOVER.
c. glover and sons pty. ltd, geelong 1870, brougham street, wool & sheepskin storeroom
National Wool Museum
Textile - Blanket, Eagley Mill, 1955-59
This blanket was owned by the Rosenberg family from the late 1950s onwards. It was the donor Denise’s blanket. Born May 1958, her late mother Elfie kept it safe for many decades after Denise had outgrown it. Elfie returned the blanket to Denise 20 years ago, in its current near new condition. Jacques Rosenberg and Elfie née Naparstek, Denise’s parents, met in Melbourne in the Summer of 1950. They both survived being young and Jewish in Europe during the Second World War. Jacques grew up in France and Elfie in Germany, she was a child of the Kindertransport. They married in 1952 and by 1958 had a son and two daughters. Denise, the youngest daughter, donated the blanket on behalf of the Rosenberg family to the National Wool Museum in 2021. The Kindertransport was a program designed to facilitate the immigration of Jewish children from Nazi Germany before the outbreak of the Second World War. The United Kingdom took in nearly 10,000 predominantly Jewish children from Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia and Poland. The children were placed in British foster homes, hostels, schools and farms. Tragically, these children were often the only members of their families to survive the tragedies that were to unfold in Europe. Fortunately, Elfie’s parents did survive World War Two by sneaking out of Germany and into the south of France. After Elfie and her sister Serry were Kindertransported, they met up with Salma and Risla Naparstek in Paris in 1947 before migrating to Australia. This blanket originates from the Eagley Mill. They manufactured woollen, worsted and knitwear products from their mill located in Collingwood. Part of Foy & Gibson, the mill had frontages measuring almost two miles within the area bounded by Little Oxford, Wellington, Stanley and Peel Streets in Collingwood. This was the largest manufacturing plant for wool in the Southern Hemisphere at the time. It was also one of the oldest. The first machines for knitting men’s socks were installed in 1896. The site ultimately went into receivership while under new ownership in 1968 and is now high-end real estate. More information about the Mill can be read via Unimelb digitised collection. https://digitised-collections.unimelb.edu.au/bitstream/handle/11343/21262/269411_UDS2010852-85.pdf?sequence=18&isAllowed=y
38”x45” (965 x 1145mm) cream wool blanket. The blanket has white stitching around its edge. Embroidered in the centre of the blanket is a koala eating leaves with accompanying flowers on either side of the marsupial. In the bottom right corner of the blanket a small square label from the Eagley Mills is stitched. This label includes the images of a Sphinx head, a pyramid and a baby’s crib.
Eagley / ALL / WOOL / 38”x45” / AWARDED THE CERTIFICATE OF / THE ROYAL INSTITUTE OF / PUBLIC HEALTH & HYGIENE LONDON
kindertransport, eagley mill, blanket
National Wool Museum
Tool - Sickle, Pre. 1988
Feed for sheep farming is crucially important. Whether growing a sheep for breeding, wool or meat, it is vital to ensure that all sheep at whatever stage of life are maintaining or growing in weight. Sheep are often pictured grazing in paddocks; however, the grass available in a paddock is often not enough to maintain a sheep’s weight. In addition, if a sheep eats grass too low in a paddock then corrosion can affect the soil preventing any grass from growing in this location. For these reasons, supplementary feed is introduced to sheep’s diets. In most occasions’ food high in protein such as Lupins is sought. In times such as drought or to makeup a sheep’s roughage; feed such as silage, hay and straw may be required in the feeding of sheep. This is where the sickle is introduced to sheep farming. Although modern-day machines are used to harvest cereals, in times past the sickle was used for harvesting these crops. Once harvested, these crops can be fed to sheep freshly cut or dried. This sickle has been on display for 30 years at the National Wool Museum. It was at the entrance to Gallery One in the “A New Europe” wood hut display case. It was taken off display in 2021 with the “On the Land” redevelopment of this gallery space.
Curved Metal serrated blade extending from carved dark wooden handle
tools of the trade, sheep feed, sheep farming
National Wool Museum
Painting, The White Farm, 2020/21
The farm buildings that Linda Gallus has studied and painted are on the farmland adjoining the Leura Park properties in Curlewis, on the Bellarine Peninsula. The current owner of the property told Linda that he bought the farm in 1994. He has used it for both sheep and cattle grazing since purchasing the property. When the farmer bought the land all the buildings on the property were painted white for sale, despite the fact they were very old. The shearing shed was in use up until the time of sale but was in a bad state of disrepair. The roof, stumps and floor required replacing. The building was no longer in use after the sale, so the shearing shed gradually fell into further disrepair. The previous owner had also used the property for growing potatoes, crops and livestock, mainly sheep. Linda’s fascination with the property came when she caught a glimpse of the white chimney over the hill driving towards Point Lonsdale, which still stands proud today on the roof of the old shearing shed. The owner kindly allowed her to visit the property over the past few years to capture the buildings using photography and painting. During this time many of the buildings have fallen. Linda calls it The White Farm as there are remnants of that original white paint on the outside of most of the buildings giving it a strange and rather beautiful patina. The structures are wonderful remnants of the history of the Bellarine. Linda first spotted the old shearing shed when she was driving home to Clifton Springs from Geelong. It was the white chimney on the shearing shed that stood out behind the rolling grassy hills. It was intriguing – bright white and still in good condition, unlike the rest of the building. After further investigation Linda got to know the owner of the property and visited it frequently to draw, take photos and paint. There is a variety of lovely old buildings on the property, but it was the shearing shed that held extra fascination for Linda. The most intriguing thing for Linda was that the buildings were all painted white at some stage and now the patina of peeling paint and bleached timber brought a wonderful mood and feeling to the farm. This is what she has tried to capture in this series of 11 paintings. Most of the buildings are falling, so Linda felt an urgency to capture them using acrylic paint on canvas in order to commemorate them forever.
Acrylic Paint on Canvas. The images both feature a falling down shearing shed as the central focus. The wood of the shearing shed is a central theme of importance. The old buildings were painted white for sale despite being in a state of structural instability. After time this same painted wood has been left with an interesting complex patina like film on the surface which the artist has taken great care to capture. Image 1 is titled ‘Another gust of Wind’. It shows the exterior of the shearing shed which is in the process of collapsing from the forces of mother nature. In the background of this painting another of the buildings in the ‘White Farm’ complex is visible, in addition to blue skies and overgrown green grasses. Image 2 is titled ‘Green Trough’. It features the interior of the same collapsing shearing shed. The image is painted as though the viewer is peering through a crack of the external wall. Internally a green trough is seen hanging on an internal fence. Unlike everything else in the shearing shed, the trough appears new and in good condition. It provides a strong juxtaposition to the rest of the shearing shed, and the larger surrounding ‘White Farm’ complex
bellarine peninsula, the white farm, shearing shed
National Wool Museum
Wool Classing Exercise Book, 1941-1943
John Griffin’s wool classing exercise books from 1941-1943 when he was a student at the Gordon Institute in Geelong. John and his father John Henry Griffin owned a farm in Dunkeld and bred fine merino wool. One year they topped the wool sales figures for the area, in the late 1940s. There are four books in total. One book is on the topic of Veterinary Science and is from 1941. It contains information on topics such as birth and early lamb life, bone structure and other internal organisms of a sheep, such as the heart. Another book is on Wool Classing with topics such as wool scouring, dipping, shearing and micron counts. The third book is on general shearing shed knowledge. This includes a diagram for rolling a fleece, correct method for stamping a wool bale and branding abbreviations. The final book is on the History the Merino Sheep. It is a long form essay answer booklet. The Gordon institute and wool are synonymous with one another, the first class in wool sorting was offered at the Gordon in 1891. With much of the wool clip sent directly to England at this time, The Gordon's focus soon shifted to wool classing and marketing. By the 1930s, The Gordon's wool school was renowned as the state's wool industry training centre. Early specialist short courses were offered around Victoria to assist wool growers in preparing their clip for market, with modules on sheep breeding and pasture development included in the programs. Anne Griffin’s, John’s daughter, donated the exercise books to the National Wool Museum in 2021.
Book 1 is predominately blue circular cover with cream background. Middle of book has pink highlighter mark. Reverse of book has an Arithmetical Table and a Multiplication Table in a blue ink on cream paper. It also has four black ink markings Book 2 is predominately blue circular cover with cream background. Book has red tape across the spine. Reverse of book has an Arithmetical Table and a Multiplication Table in a blue ink on cream paper. Book 3 is predominately blue plaid cover with cream background. Middle of book has pink highlighter handwriting which has been crossed with the same colour, leaving the text unreadable. Reverse of book has an Arithmetical Table and a Multiplication Table in a blue ink on cream paper. Book 4 is predominately blue diagonal striped book with cream background. Middle of book has small picture of Australia. Reverse of book has an Arithmetical Table and a Multiplication Table in a blue ink on cream paper.
Book 1. Front cover: “All Schools” / EXERCISE BOOK / NAME Jack Griffin Grade Gordon Institute School of Technology(?) / Approved by the / Education Department Back cover. Reverse. ARTHMETICAL TABLES / (Numerous, see media) Book 2. Front cover: 2nd & 3rd / “All Schools” / EXERCISE BOOK / Name Jack Griffin / Grade 2 / School the Gordon / Approved by the / Education Department Back cover. Reverse. ARTHMETICAL TABLES / (Numerous, see media) Book 3. Front cover: Embassy / EXERCUSE BOOK / Name John Griffin / Grade 1 / School (?) / APPROVED BY THE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT / Back cover. Reverse. ARTHMETICAL TABLES / (Numerous, see media) Book 4. Front cover: EXERCISE / APPROVED BY EDUCATION DEPT. / BOOK / NAME Jack Griffin / GRADE 3 / SCHOOL Gordon Back cover. Reverse. ARTHMETICAL TABLES / (Numerous, see media)
gordon institute geelong, wool classing, 1940s sheep farming
National Wool Museum
These wool undervests were purchased by Edith Bender for her husband Edwin, prior to 1963. Edwin would catch a ‘Red Rattler’ train along the North Shore line to go to work in Pitt Street., Sydney. Edith was concerned Edwin would catch a cold in the unheated train or in his unheated office, so she brought these woollen undervests for him to wear to work. Edwin would wear the undervests under a woollen suit and with a woollen overcoat. Edwin passed away in 1963, at which point Edith stored the undervests away. They were passed to Edith’s daughter when Edith passed away in 1980. They were then passed to Tanya Davis on the death of her mother. Tanya donated the undervests to the National Wool Museum in 2021.
2x cream wool undervests. Henley style with short sleeves and three buttons at the front. Labels from the maker ‘Braemar’ have been stitched to the neckline of both vests. An additional label is stitched under the first button on the front of both undervests.
Label stitched to neck of vest: BRAEMAR / MADE IN SCOTLAND / OPTIMUS / PURE WOOL / TREATED TO RESIST / SHRINKAGE / QUALITY / B. OPTIMUS Label stitched to front buttons of vest: MADE IN SCOTLAND / FOR FARMER’S / SYDNEY Attached swing tag: BRAEMAR / The WASHING of WOOLLENS / PREPARE a bath of good bar or flake soap, thoroughly dissolved in water not hotter than the hands can bear. Squeeze the garments through the hands several times in the bath. Don’t rub them on a board. Rinse in warm water until soap is thoroughly removed. Wringing should be done in the hands. Stretch well to width and length and dry at once, preferably in the open air Stretch again in the hands when dry. Attached swing tag. Reverse: IMPORTANT POINTS / Do not use soda or washing powders. / This garment must not be subbed on a board, or subjected to mechanical friction.
red rattler, wool clothing
National Wool Museum
Carpet Samples, Godfrey Hirst and CO. Pty Ltd, c.1990
Carpet samples created by Godfrey Hirst, a carpet mill whose history spans back to 1865 when the Victorian Woollen and Cloth Manufacturing Company began operations in Geelong and was purchased in the 1890s by the man Godfrey Hirst. Godfrey Hirst’s entrepreneurial skills and knowledge of the industry led to the great success which saw the company expand in multiple forms over the next century and a half. Today, thousands of metres of carpet are produced by Godfrey Hirst every day, and their flooring can be found in millions of homes. These 6 carpet samples date from the early 1990s and each have a unique colour pattern and design.
Each carpet sample is made with a pile fibre that is 100% wool. The primary backing of the carpet is a woven polypropylene with a secondary backing a woven jute. Carpet 8102.1's colour name is Slate. It has a dark grey background with a red and blue diagonal stripe. The pattern repeats in a 10cm x 11.5cm block. Carpet 8102.2’s colour name is Terracotta. It is a mostly block pink colour with no repeating pattern. It has occasional flicks of grey. Carpet 8102.3’s colour name is Arctic Night. It has white, light blue and grey colours repeating one after another in a diagonal line. Carpet 8102.4’s colour name is Ivory. It has a brown background with a cream colour diamond. The pattern repeats in a 15cm x 15cm block. Carpet 8102.5’s colour name is Glenwood. It has a thin darker green and lighter green horizontal stripe spanning its entire width. These stripes repeat the height of the carpet. Carpet 8105.6’s colour name is also Ivory. It has a brown background with a cream colour leaf pattern. The pattern repeats in a 92cm x 92cm block.
Wording on rear: Numerous. See Media.
godfrey hirst, carpet, textile manufacture
National Wool Museum
Wool picking machine designed to separate locks of wool before it is carded and spun. The picker opens the wool’s locks which makes it easier to send the fleece through a carding machine. It does this by teasing the fibres (which can also be done by hand just by pulling the lock structure apart), but a picker does this in bulk and much quicker than what can be done by hand. It is possible to spin fibres directly after the picking stage; however, it is usually more desirable to card and blend them with other fibres. Typically, at a textile mill, a picking machine can separate enough lengths of fibre for a full day’s work after just a single hour. It will also help to remove any vegetation matter or other any unwanted elements that may be present in the wool. The quality of the casting on this machine suggest that it was made locally, either in Australia or New Zealand. Mike Leggett, the donor of the machine, acquired it from New Zealand where the seller said it had been used by his father to pick wool to make hand stuffed horse saddles. Mike attempted to used it a couple of times to pick alpaca hair, but the speed of the attached motor caused damage to the fibres. The motor is thought to be an added attachment, sometime around the 1960s judging by its age, while the machine itself is thought to be dated around the 1920s. The machine works by inserting wool through the rollers. Initially there was a conveyor belt feeder system which was powered by the handle on the side. This conveyor belt has been removed however, most likely due to age and deterioration. Wool is now fed through the initial teeth and is met by a spiked rotating drum which works to separate the fibres. The separated fibres would then complete a loop of the drum before being dispatched somewhere below, around where the motor presently sits, at a rapid rate of speed. Typically this wool will be collected in a closet or large catchment area, as can be seen from the 8:47 minute marker in the linked video (link - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kMjx-t3tH3A). It is not apparent how the wool is collected with this machine.
Red and green machine with four green legs currently attached to a wooden pallet with wheels for easy movement. The green legs lead up to a red central circular barrel from which many attachments are present. Also present on the wooden pallet is a small black motor which is attached by a rubber belt to the central drum inside the red barrel. The belt spins the wooden drum via a dark red circular plate attached to the side of the drum. On the other side of the red barrel, a green handle extends for turning the picker’s conveyor belt feeder system. Two green walls extend forward from the central red barrel, guarding either side of where the conveyor belt would have been. At the start of these walls is a wooden cylinder, which the conveyor belt would have wrapped around, followed by two interlocking gears which rotate and accept the fed wool. The red roof extends over the central cylinder from here, securing the wool inside and protecting hands from the heavily spiked internal wooden cylinder which rotates and separates (picks) the wool. Extending over the top of this red roof is a green handle which reaches to the back of the machine (not pictured). Here it accepts a weight to ensure pressure is always present for the initial feeder interlocked gear teeth. There are two large gear cogs on the rubber belt side of the machine and 3 small gear cogs on the handle side of the machine, all coloured green. A green handle is also present at the rear of the machine, below the location from which the weight is hanging. A power cable extends from the motor and there are two adjustable metal rods on the top of the machine, the purpose of these rods is presently unknown.
Black texter. On top of drum. Wording: HG3707 Wording. Imprint: BRACEWIND BLYN On motor. Wording AEI
wool picking, textile manufacturing, wool processing
National Wool Museum
Rug, Tascot Templeton Carpet (TTC), c.1990
This rug was woven in the mid-1990s at the Tascot Templeton Carpet (TTC) mills in Devonport, Tasmania. It was an in-house design. The rug was woven as a one-off design exercise and was given a Golden Thread Award by the Australian Wool Corporation. The design never went into standard stock production and was never released for public sale. This rug has been woven with 100% wool on a 1 metre wide loom. The loom was purchased by TTC from United Carpet Mills of Preston and the rug was woven to demonstrate the capabilities of these looms. This rug is an example of Wilton weaving. Wilton differs from Axminster in that it is usually Loop Pile and 100% wool whereas Axminster is Plush (cut) pile and normally 80/20 wool nylon blend. TTC manufactured primarily high-quality narrow and broad loom, Axminster and Wilton carpets for the domestic and commercial market. They operated from the early 1960s until their closure in 2011. This rug was also on display in the Tascot Templeton head offices before being donated to the National Wool Museum in 2021 by Roger Warn.
3 x 3-meter carpet rug woven in 1-meter wide sections. The pattern repeats 3 times both in the width and the length. Starting from the bottom left corner, a square can be seen within a larger circular shape. These circular shapes connect end on end across the width and length of the rug. 5 Circles make up the length of the rug while 6 circles make up the width. Numerous small shapes encompass the entirety of the rug. These small shapes work together to form many interconnected repeating forms that draw your eye in a new direction every time you look at the rug. The predominant colour of the rug is a purple background with blue, cream and orange colours making up the foreground colours.
carpet rugs, woollen rugs, tascot templeton carpets, axminster carpet loom
National Wool Museum
Medallion, CENTENAIRE DU DELAINAGE MAZAMET, 1951
This medallion was struck to celebrate the 100th anniversary of fellmongering in Mazamet in 1951. Fellmongering - In French, ‘delainage” means, literally, ‘de-wooling'. It is the industrial process of separating wool from sheepskins. In the 19th century, the southern French town of Mazamet became the world centre of délainage and played an important part in the Australian wool industry. At one time Mazamet was reputed to be the 15th richest town in Europe, and it was said that the town’s branch of the Banque Nationale de Paris (French banking firm) was the second largest in France. At its height, Mazamet had 48 fellmongeries and imported more than 100,000 tonnes of sheepskins a year from the southern hemisphere, mostly from Australia and Argentina. It also supported numerous associated industries such as tanneries, spinning mills and clothing manufacturers. In the 1980s Mazamet’s fellmongering industry fell into decline under pressure from environmental concerns and cheap imports. The town’s last two fellmongeries closed in 2004. The town continues to have a strong relation to Australia, with street names such as, Rue de Australie, Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney in recognition of a connection to the two distant lands. Today, half a century since wool importation largely ended, there remains a link to the past. Elite quality leather and woollen clothing companies such as Hermes and Chanel still source much of their stock in Mazamet. This medallion was presented to William Haughton and Co. who were one of Australia’s largest wool-buying companies of the first half of the 20th century. Wm Haughton had a major presence in Geelong and its “SKINS WOOL HIDES TALLOW etc.” signs were prominent on railways stations throughout the Western District and beyond. Haughtons had branches in all Australian capital cities, New Zealand, London and Bradford. Its agents in Mazamet were Maison Louis Maffre, an enterprise founded by M. Louis Maffre, mayor of Mazamet from 1912 to 1919. This medallion was donated to the National Wool Museum by the family of Sir Robert Southey AO CMG, former managing director of Wm Haughton & Co.
Bronze medallion contained within purple case. On one side of the medallion, a mill worker is seen scraping the wool off the treated sheepskin. On the reverse the inception can be read.
Wording: CRESCAM ET LUCEBO // CENTENAIRE / DU DELAINAGE / MAZAMET // 1851-1951. Smooth edge stamped with a cornucopia and the inscription BRONZE
mazamet, fellmongering, délainage
National Wool Museum
Scarf, 1988 Seoul Olympics women's scarf, c. 1988
The conduct of the LA games changed many factors in a short space of time. The Americans made their Games a huge financial success, whereas other countries, e.g. Canada, was left with a huge debt. The key to this was SPONSORSHIP which soon replaced the old Australian way of fundraising with pub raffles. It also began to change the atmosphere where the AWC had previously been valued for their generous donation. There was a move by commercial specialist uniform marketing organisations paying sponsorship money to publicise the fact that they were clothing high profile athletes. Old loyalties remained but became tested more and more as time progressed. For example, each uniform was expected to include an Akubra hat, why? Because it always had. For the same reason the uniforms also had Driza-Bone Coats. The day before the Seoul Opening Ceremony it rained in Seoul, so at the Opening Ceremony the Australian Team emerged in their Driza-Bones, made from cotton, not a wool fibre in sight, and the wool growers were footing the bill for over a million dollars. Thoroughly embarrassed, I resolved to avoid this situation next time by having all uniform fabrics pre-treated with Scotchguard prior to garment making.
The scarf is brightly coloured in blue, green, yellow, purple and red on a plain cream base fabric. The lines of colour run on an angle across the fabric as jagged, irregular lines with small motifs of Australia, the Southern Cross stars, fish, triangles and a wave pattern, placed throughout. The centre of the scarf is dominated by a depiction of Australia presented in yellow. Within Australia are eucalyptus leaf shapes as well as mountainous shapes and the wave shape that is featured elsewhere on the scarf. The left hand short hem of the scarf has a differing pattern with larger lines running on the opposite angle to the rest of the scarf. Within the larger lines the same motifs are again printed.
National Wool Museum
Paper Lantern, 1988 Seoul Olympics Closing Ceremony Paper Lantern, c. 1988
This paper lantern was used by Australian athletes in the ‘Lantern Dance’, the last program of the closing ceremony, the lantern is called “Ch’ong sa ch’orong” and is traditionally used during weddings and festivals.
When closed the lantern appears as a large, red spiral bound book with detailed inscriptions describing the way to correctly use the lantern in the ceremony. This description appears in several languages as well as a drawn depiction. When opened latticed crepe paper forms a cylinder. The two thirds of the paper is dyed dyed blue and the last third is dyed red. A small battery pack is used to light the lantern.
GAMES OF THE XXIVTH OLYMPIAD SEOUL 1988 o The last program of the Closing Ceremony is called “Lantern Dance”. When all the performers enter the stadium holding lanterns, turn the paper board inside out and press the ends so that they snap shut. This will then allow the lanterns to light up. Hold the lantern by the handle at the centre and gently rock it above your head as shown in the picture. o Listen to the announcements via the ear-phones and follow the signals from the guides for further instructions. o* This lantern is called “Ch’ong sa ch’orong” and was traditionally used during weddings and festivals. This inscription is repeated several times in various languages on the cover of the lantern.
1988 seoul olympic games, closing ceremony, lantern dance
National Wool Museum
1984 Los Angeles Olympics Men's Opening Ceremony Shirt, Men's Opening Ceremony Kookaburra Shirt, c. 1984
On the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Uniforms donator Doug wrote- During the 1980s the Australian wool industry was at its most prosperous times with record numbers of sheep producing wool receiving ever increasing values due to the success of the Reserve Price Scheme, and the overall guidance of the Australian Wool Corporation (AWC). As a humble technician, my role was a low profile newly created position of “Controller, Technical Marketing” where wool was to be marketed on its technical properties, as distinct from the “Product Marketing Group” which exploited trhe traditional high profile approach of marketing wool;s superior fashion attributes. The Woolmark was the tool central to this approach. When the forthcoming Los Angeles Olympic Games was announced, the Product Marketing Group seized upon the chance to show the world that we could make top fashion garments and display them on our elite athletes on the world stage. A concept was launched using a contemporary top designer, Adel Weiss, with the most exclusive fabrics and knits available, and all with a lot of hype. This launch failed dismally for the following reasons- - The designer did a wonderful job presenting an excellent fashion range on perfect skinny models. The AOC however wanted a uniform which had an obvious Australian appearance when fitted to elite, and frequently muscular, athletes. - The fabrics chosen did not reflect the performance required by travelling athletes, there was no recognition of the need for ‘easy care.’ - There was no recognition given to the problem of measuring, manufacturing and distribution of a range of articles when the selected athlete could be domiciled anywhere in Australia. - There was no appreciation of such historical facts as Fletcher Jones, who had been unofficial suppliers dating back to the 1954 Olympics in Melbourne, and the Fletcher Jones board member, who was also an AWC board member, and was not in favour of the change. The project passed from Product Marketing to Public Relations, a big spending off-shoot of the AWC Chairman David Asimus, and due to the day to day operations of the project was passed to me and PR took care of the financial matters. The first task was to meet with the AOC and find out exactly their requirements. This lead to the production of a design and manufacturing brief, cointaining exact time lines for each event required to ensure an appropriate uniform on every athlete chosen to represent his/her country on the date given for the Opening Ceremony in Los Angeles. Working backwards the timeline becomes- 1. Noted the exact date of the Opening Ceremony. 2. Estimated the date for distributing completed garments to each athlete. 3. Estimated the time span available for measuring each athlete and commence making each component of the ensemble to the individual measurements of each athlete. 4. Decided the date for making the final choice of uniform design concept. 5. Decided the date for distribution of the design brief to selected designers. These five steps were spread out over a two year period. The Commonwealth Games occur midway between each Olympic Games, work on the Olympic uniform commences the week after the Commonwealth Games closing ceremony and MUST be ready by the prescribed day two years hence. The project also had to remain cognisant of trade politics existing within the span of the task, as well as the temperament of designers in general. It is no overstatement to say that in the past every designer in Australia believed they could, and should, be chosen to design the Australian Uniform. The final choice of designer almost always faced criticism from the fashion press and any designer who had been overlooked. However, with the contenders receiving an exacting brief the numbers of serious contenders greatly reduced. The Los Angeles Olympic Uniforms. A further reason for the AWC bid failure to design the LA uniform was that the AOC had already chosen Prue Acton to design it. This was based on her proven performance during previous games as she had a talent for creating good taste Australiana. Her design concepts also considered the effect when they were viewed on a single athlete as well as the impact when viewed on a 400 strong team coming on to the arena. A blazer trouser/skirt uniform in bright gold was chosen for the formal uniform. It was my task to select a pure wool faille fabric from Foster Valley weaving mill and have sufficient woven and ready within the prescribed timeline. The trouser/skirt fabric selected was a 60/40 wool polyester plain weave fabric from Macquarie Worsted. This fabric had a small effect thread of linen that was most attractive when dyed to match some eucalyptus bark Prue had brought back from central Australia. For the Opening Ceremony uniform, Prue designed a series of native fauna, a kookaburra for the men’s shirt and a pleated skirt with a rural scene of kangaroos, hills and plants. This presented an insurmountable printing challenge to the local printing industry as it had an unacceptably large repeat size and the number required (50) was also commercially unacceptable. The solution was a DIY mock up at RMIT and the employment of four student designers. The fabric selected for this garment was a light weight 19 micron, pure wool with a very high twist yarn in alternating S and Z twist, warp and weft. This fabric proved to be the solution to a very difficult problem, finding a wool product which is universally acceptable when worn next to the sin by young athletes competing in the heat of a Los Angeles summer. Modifications to this fabric were developed to exploit its success when facing the same problem in future games. Garment Making- The most exacting garment in the ensemble is the tailored blazer, plus the related trouser/skirt. Unfortunately tailoring athletes that come in various shapes and sizes such as; - Weight lifters develop an enormous chest, arms and neck size. A shirt made to a neck size of 52 would produce a shirt with cuffs extending well beyond the wearer’s hands. - Basketball players are up to 7 feet tall and garments relying ona chest measurement grading would produce a shirt with cuffs extending only to elbow length. - Swimmers develop enormous shoulders and slim hips, cyclists by contrast develop thighs I liken to tree trunks and a uniform featuring tight trousers must be avoided at all cost. Suffice to say many ensembles require specialist ‘one off’ treatment for many athletes. Meanwhile there is a comfortable in between group who can accept regular sizes so you can cater for these by having back up stock with plenty of built in contingencies. Athletes may be domiciled anywhere in Australia, this creates a fundamental problem of taking their measurements. The Fletcher Jones organisation was key to answering this problem due to their presence in every capital city, as well as many provincial towns around Australia. Each athlete on being selected for the Olympic Team was simultaneously requested to visit their nearest Fletcher Jones shop. The standardised measurement data collected was shared with the other manufacturers, e.g. Pelaco Shirts, Holeproof Socks and Knitwear, Maddison Belts, and even Hush Puppy Shoes. As the time for the Games approached the AOC made arrangements for combining meeting of all. Selected available athletes at the Australian Institute of Sport, Canberra, where, among other things, they were fitted and supplied with their uniform. The method evolved as follows.
Men’s cream coloured button up, collared shirt. Images of a kookaburra have been printed onto the shirt, a single kookaburra on the left breast and a pair of kookaburras on the reverse of the shirt. The kookaburras are printed in a brown tone to complement the cream colour of the fabric.
On tag - FM
australian wool corporation, 1984 los angeles olympics, olympic uniforms, men's uniforms
National Wool Museum
Textile - Quilt, India Flint, Red Blanket Wagga, 2008
Created for and entered in the 2008 ‘Expressions: The Wool Quilt Prize’- “The quilts connect us to our past and to our future, by interpreting Australian themes and telling our stories.”- Judy Hooworth, Quilter and Judge of the Prize. Donated to the National Wool Museum after the conclusion of the exhibition.
Eucalyptus dyed woolen blanket base with salvaged fabrics hand sewn to create a patchwork effect. The eucalyptus dye has been used to create different tones of brown and red throughout the design with further dyeing used to create leaf imprints on the fabrics. A running stitch has been used to quilt the wagga, the stitching is imperfect, in places tied on the surface of the wagga.
On reverse: INDIA FLINT RED BLANKET WAGGA
expressions: the wool quilt prize, quilt, india flint, wagga
National Wool Museum
Photograph, Andrew Chapman, Shearing time at Cooninbil Station, 2006
Shearing time at Cooninbil Station, NSW, 2006. The Ferrier Wool Press sits among penned sheep in an old woolshed. Invented and made in Geelong, the Ferrier wool press could be found in woolsheds all over Australia and around the world.
A Green large wool press reaches towards the ceiling in the centre of the image. Rays of bright orange sunlight extend around the green wool press. Surrounding the wool press are numerous sheep. The sheep are penned within a large multileveled wooden woolshed.
shearing, ferrier wool press, cooninbil station
National Wool Museum
Print, Chris McClelland, Shearing the Rams – Tuppal Station, 210
Chris was invited to be artist in resident for the historic re-enactment of “Shearing the Rams” at the North Tuppal Station woolshed held on the 4th and 5th June 2010. The celebration attracted record crowds to witness the shearing of the station rams by 72 blade shearers. Over a single weekend in 2010, thousands of people queued for hours to see a piece of Australian history recreated at North Tuppal Station near Tocumwal, NSW. In 1900, Francis Faulkner invested a staggering £4000 to extend his shearing shed on Tuppal Station, making it the biggest in the country. Over the next decade more than three million sheep trod its pine boards and were shorn in its 72 stands. After years of drought and the Great Depression, the property fell into disrepair and the station was split up. When North Tuppal Station was sold to the Atkinson family in 1928, just five of the 72 stands were in operation. In 2010, Sport Shear Australia approached the Atkinson family about holding an event in the historic shearing shed to raise money for a team of Australian shearers to go to the world shearing title in Wales. An army of volunteers restored the T-shaped shed and yards and organised a weekend of events. Over two days, 6,000 sheep were shorn and all 72 stands of the restored North Tuppal shed were brought back to life. A total of 117 shearers shared the boards with 90 wool handlers who skirted 19 fleeces every minute. For a period on each day of this historic weekend, the machines were then silenced, and 72 shearers picked up their old blade shears to recreate past shearing methods. “When they fired up and got the blades out there was deathly silence on the board - you could hear a pin drop because normal shearing you have all the machines and it is quite noisy. Here you could just hear the click, like in the song Click Go the Shears Boys. People had tears in their eyes. It was quite an emotional thing to see that and very proud to be here.” George Falkiner, grandson of Francis Falkiner
Coloured framed print of shearing scene in the Tuppal station, Ferrrier’s wool press on the left-hand side and station on the top. Print in framed in a light-coloured wooden frame with white coloured matte.
Under artwork - In 1891 Tuppal Station, a sum of 176,000 acres threshold, was bought by Mr Fiane Sadlies Falkines, Under the management of his eldest son F.B.S. Falkines, the 72 stand woolshed was build in 1900 and powered by a 16 horsepower steam engine. Sheep were pure Boonoke blood and the average numbers of sheep shorn over nineteen years to 1909 was 152,780. Around 7200 sheep could be shorn daily. The largest clip totalled 3326 baled of greasy and scoured wool and was sold in London. Bottom right corner - Chris McClelland 181/720 Shearing The Rams – Tuppal Station
National Wool Museum
Tool - Water Pump, c.1960
A windmill may be considered one of the most iconic sights of Australian Farming life. A pump like this rest at the heart of all such windmills, turning wind energy into water for farmers both here in Australia and worldwide alike. The water windmills access is referred to as an aquifer, an underground layer of water trapped in rocks but accessible with use of water wells and windmills. Australia is home to an underground aquifer known as the Great Artesian Basin. It is the largest and deepest aquifer in the world. Stretching over 1,700,000 square kilometres, the Basin underlies nearly a quarter of the continent including most of Queensland, the south- east corner of the Northern Territory, the north-east part of South Australia and the northern part of New South Wales. The basin is 3,000 metres deep in places and is estimated to contain 64,900 cubic kilometres of groundwater. To try and give this number context, a megalitre is a million litres. The Great Artesian Basin contains 65,000 million megalitres of water. This would be enough to cover all the land on the planet in almost half a metre of water.
Lift style piston pump typical of an Australian farm connected to a multi-bladed windmill. Bronze cylindrical construction coming up from removable wood base. Rotating lever is above outlet pipe which would send water to the storage tank.
windmill, australian farming, great artesian basin, aquifer
National Wool Museum
Tool - Numnuts, Numnuts, 2020
Worldwide, more than 100 million lambs are castrated, and their tails are docked each year. Numnuts is a technological innovation to improve animal welfare. It combines traditions with innovation. In the mid-1990s it was scientifically shown that the immense pain felt during castration and tail docking could be significantly reduced with the use of anaesthetic. For the next 15 years, the industry said the cost the welfare devices and development were too high. But todays ethical consumer has demanded that sheep have no more pain. Initiated in Glasgow in 2009, Numnuts took nearly a decade to develop. Here you can see five stages of development, from an early prototype to the Numnuts device farmers use today. Each phase of development took years of on-farm trails to achieve the final product. Today there is even NumOcaine, an approved local anaesthetic used by Numnuts. Using the simple elastrator ring and adding an anaesthetic injector, Numnuts delivers pain relief during tail docking and castration. In the world’s first rubber ring applicator with a pain relief delivery mechanism. Through innovation and consumer pressure the wool industry is going through a moment of rapid change.
8098.1 - Numnuts tool made with stainless steel and black, orange and grey plastic. 8098.2 - Glass bottle with orange and grey plastic nozzle containing water for injection. 8098.3 - Yellow plastic case containing 12 stainless steel needles 8098.4 - 10 green plastic elastrator rings 8098.5 - Product cardboard box with the product image on the front
8097.2 - on label - For animal treatment only WATER FOR INJECTION 100mL 8097.3 - On case - numnuts 12x Veterinary Hypodermic Needles On needdles - 18G 8097.5 - Numnuts targeted pain relief for tail docking and castration
numnuts, tools, sheep, castration, docking