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Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village Warrnambool, Victoria

The Shipwreck Coast of Victoria has a rich maritime history. The spectacular coastline is the final resting place of over 180 wrecks along our beautiful and wild coastline.

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village is both a museum with Australia's richest shipwreck collection and an 1870's village located on the state heritage listed and still operating Lady Bay Lighthouse precinct. The village provide a glimpse into the maritime lifestyles and trades of the 1870's era, the peak of Australia's maritime heritage.

Links

Contact Information

location
89 Merri St Warrnambool Victoria 3280 (map)
phone
+61 03 5559 4600

Contact

Opening Hours

9am - Late Daily 7 Day per Week

Entry Fee

By Day - Museum: $18.00 adult, $14.50 concession, $8.50 child, $48.00 family. By Night - Shipwrecked Sound and Laser Experience: Adults $30, Concession $27, Child $15.95, Family $77

Location

89 Merri Street Warrnambool Victoria

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Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village collection holds over 10,000 items.

Our focus is centered around early Victorian shipwreck and settlement artefacts from 1850 - 1940.

Our most significant item is the Loch Ard Peacock which is a minton earthernware majolica glazed peacock that survived the shipwreck of the Loch Ard. Other items of interest in our collection include the Carmichael Watch, the ships bells from numerous Shipwrecks, cannons and the Schomberg Diamond Ring.

Ongoing work continues to better understand our collection and we welcome comments you may have on any items you see. We are not experts and will value your contribution.

PLEASE NOTE WE ARE NOT A VALUATION SERVICE AND WILL NOT BE ABLE TO ADVISE YOU OF ANY VALUES ON YOUR ITEMS.

Significance

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village's collection of items is significant as it is the largest collection of shipwreck artefacts to be held in Victoria. The value of the collection is also important due to the provenance of many of the items, their social significance as well as their rarity.

Cr Jacinta Ermacora, Mayor of Warrnambool 24 July 2011 2:57 PM

Thanks Peter, The Victorian Community Collections Project is a ground breaking project and will prove invaluable for heritage preservation on behalf of our community here in Warrnambool. Please pass on my appreciation to the volunteers and staff involved in the project

Peter Abbott 31 January 2013 11:54 PM

Great archive of items. Well done to volunteers who have developed this rich collection and ways to view it. Can not wait to see more.

Margaret 14 October 2013 9:27 AM

Is it me? Finding a lot of the photographs are not coming up on view. Are there gremlins in the system or?? Great idea - will check back again.

Helen Sheedy 17 October 2013 3:35 PM

Thanks for your comment Margaret. yes there are a number of photos that did not load in the mass upload computer. Our volunteer team is busily working away to get as many of these online at the moment. As you can imagine it is an enormous task checking through all 7000 items. If there is an item in particular you would like to view let me know and I can alert the team to ensure the photo is loaded asap.

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20 items matching valve

20 items matching valve

Book - Valves and Valve-Gearing

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village Book Valves and Valve-Gearing Valves and Valve-Gearing Author: Charles Hurst Publisher: Charles Griffen & Co Ltd Date: 1907 flagstaff hill warrnambool shipwrecked-coast flagstaff-hill flagstaff-hill-maritime-museum

Valves and Valve-Gearing Author: Charles Hurst Publisher: Charles Griffen & Co Ltd Date: 1907

Brace

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village Brace Valve Grinder Brace, metal with round wood top on handle. Brace has a long shaft with an attachment. flagstaff hill warrnambool shipwrecked-coast flagstaff-hill flagstaff-hill-maritime-museum maritime-museum

Valve Grinder Brace, metal with round wood top on handle. Brace has a long shaft with an attachment.

Valve

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village Valve A non-return valve used to connect to a hose on a bilge pump on a vessel. This valve is from the ship Newfield and was used to pump water out of the vessel. The flap has broken away from body of valve

A non-return valve used to connect to a hose on a bilge pump on a vessel. This valve is from the ship Newfield and was used to pump water out of the vessel. The flap has broken away from body of valve. There is a little encrustation on the valve. The Newfield is Artefact Reg No N/4.

Historical information

This Non-return valve was recovered from the wreck of the Newfield. Non-return valves can be used to pump water out.of a vessel The barque Newfield left Liverpool on 1st June 1892 with a cargo of 1850 tons of fine rock salt for Brisbane. About six weeks later the ship ran into very heavy weather approaching the Australian coast. On 28th August at about 9pm her master, Captain George Scott, observed between the heavy squalls the Cape Otway light on the mainland of Victoria, but due apparently to a navigational error (the chronometers were incorrect), he mistook it for Cape Wickham on King Island, some 40 miles south. He altered course to the north expecting to run through the western entrance of Bass Strait, but instead, at about 1:30am, the ship ran aground about about 100 yards from shore, one mile east of Curdies River. The vessel struck heavily three times before grounding on an inner shoal with six feet of water in the holds. The Newfield remained upright on the reef with sails set for a considerable time as the wind slowly ripped the canvas to shreds and the sea battered the hull to pieces. Seventeen men survived the shipwreck but the captain and eight of his crew perished.

Significance

Flagstaff Hill’s collection of artefacts from the Newfield is significant for its association with the shipwreck Newfield, which is listed on the Victorian Heritage Registry. The collection is significant because of the relationship between the objects. The Newfield collection is archaeologically significant as the remains of an international cargo ship. The Newfield collection is historically significant for representing aspects of Victoria’s shipping history and its association with the shipwreck.

Brace

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village Brace Valve Grinder Brace metal with wooden knob at top & wooden piece on shaft 525mmL flagstaff hill warrnambool shipwrecked-coast flagstaff-hill flagstaff-hill-maritime-museum maritime-museum shipwreck-coast

Valve Grinder Brace metal with wooden knob at top & wooden piece on shaft 525mmL

Band Instrument and case

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village Band Instrument and case Brass Band Instrument - Cornet "Clear Bore" Class a Light Valve. Boosey & Co makers, 295 Regent Street London. No 80772 (64988) Imported by Allan & Co Pty Ltd Melbourne. Horn 4�" Length 12

Brass Band Instrument - Cornet "Clear Bore" Class a Light Valve. Boosey & Co makers, 295 Regent Street London. No 80772 (64988) Imported by Allan & Co Pty Ltd Melbourne. Horn 4�" Length 12�"

Band Instrument and case

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village Band Instrument and case Brass Band Instrument - Cornet "Solbron" Class A, Light Valve. Boosey & Co makers London. No 98585 Guaranteed British made throughout. Horn 4�" Length 12�" flagstaff hill warrnambool

Brass Band Instrument - Cornet "Solbron" Class A, Light Valve. Boosey & Co makers London. No 98585 Guaranteed British made throughout. Horn 4�" Length 12�"

Pressure Gauge

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village Pressure Gauge Pressure Gauge section, circular section of gauge with glass missing attached to a gate-valve. H 205mm x W 130mm x D 30mm. Recovered from the wreck of the Loch Ard. Previous number PWO 0349. flagstaff

Pressure Gauge section, circular section of gauge with glass missing attached to a gate-valve. H 205mm x W 130mm x D 30mm. Recovered from the wreck of the Loch Ard. Previous number PWO 0349.

Soda Syphon

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

an internal glass tube and a metal release valve and spout on the top. It was used to dispense pressurised, effervescent soda water. It was often used as an alternative to water or added to fruit juices and cordials. The text on this bottle states

Soda syphon (or siphon). Glass bottle, clear, multi sided, tapered from a heavy glass base to a narrower shoulder, with glass tube at centre connected to metal pump mechanism at the top. Has elaborate frosted label for J. Fletcher of Warrnambool. Made by the British Syphon Mfg. Co. Ltd. London. Bottle remains the property of John Fletcher, Warrnambool.

Historical information

This soda syphon (or siphon) was distributed by John Fletcher of Warrnambool, and made by the British Syphon Mfg. Co. Ltd. of London between the 1900s-1930s. It comprises a multi-sided clear glass bottle, an internal glass tube and a metal release valve and spout on the top. It was used to dispense pressurised, effervescent soda water. It was often used as an alternative to water or added to fruit juices and cordials. The text on this bottle states that it remains the property of the retailer, John Fletcher, and must be returned to him. Customers were asked for a deposit on the bottle, which would be refunded when the bottle was exchanged or continued as the deposit on a fresh bottle. Returned bottles would be cleaned and recharged with the gas and sold again. Soda syphon are bottles, glass or metal, with a release valve and spout on the top. The valve lever on the top of the syphon, when depressed, causes the gas in the syphon to force the water up through the tube and out of the spout. The bottle’s mechanism gives the water an effervescent quality to make bubbly drinks such as sparkling mineral water, soda water and sparkling water. ABOUT JOHN FLETCHER John Fletcher bought the Union Cordial Factory in Koroit Street, Warrnambool that was previously owned by John Davis. Fletcher operated the factory as J Fletcher, John Fletcher and Fletcher’s. He eventually sold his business and stock in 1930 to Ralph Reeves, who may have continued using Fletcher’s supply of drink containers before renewing them with stock showing his own brand.

Significance

The soda syphon is representative of drink containers used in the later 19th and early 20th century. It also represents the system of returnable, recyclable containers.

Inscriptions & Markings

Metal syphon has impressed "J FLETCHER" and logo "S S" in centre of two concentric circles with text between circles "BRITISH SYPHON MFG. CO. LTD. LONDON". Etched into glass "J. FLETCHER / WARRNAMBOOL", "TRADE "[stylised] F" / MARK", "SODA WATER", "THIS SYPHON IS THE PROPERTY / OF JOHN FLETCHER / WARRNAMBOOL AND CONNOT BE / AND CONNOT BE LEGALLY USED BY OTHERS / BRITISH SYPHON CO. TLD. LONDON / - - - - "

Diving Compressor

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

on left hand side for attachment. At rear is aperture which opens with two brass rings on either side connection for hose and large brass bolt beneath (possibly water intake valve) This compressor was part of the E. G. Ward Collection and is connected

Diving compressor wooden box top opening interior contains dual handles which work as an air pump. Top lid is hinged with brass ring at front to allow user easy access to interior at centre is a pressure and depth gauge which is protected from dust etc by a blue metal cover. Beside this other side are 2 large brass rings beneath this brass plate containing information re manufacturer etc and at bottom of front is air hose connection. 2 screw holes on left hand side for attachment. At rear is aperture which opens with two brass rings on either side connection for hose and large brass bolt beneath (possibly water intake valve)

Historical information

This compressor was part of the E. G. Ward Collection and is connected to the diving suit and boots.

Valve

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village Valve Valve, non-returning. Part of the bilge pump assembly. Recovered from the wreck of the Schomberg. When the ship Schomberg was launched in 1855, she was considered the most perfect clipper ship ever to be built

Valve, non-returning. Part of the bilge pump assembly. Recovered from the wreck of the Schomberg.

Historical information

When the ship Schomberg was launched in 1855, she was considered the most perfect clipper ship ever to be built. James Blaine’s Black Ball Line had commissioned her to be built for their fleet of passenger liners. At a cost of £43,103, the Aberdeen builders designed her to sail faster than the quick clippers designed by North American Donald McKay. She was a three masted wooden clipper ship, built with diagonal planking of British oat with layers of Scottish larch. This luxury vessel was designed to transport emigrants to Melbourne in superior comfort. She had ventilation ducts to provide air to the lower decks and a dining saloon, smoking room, library and bathrooms for the first class passengers. At the launch of Schomberg’s maiden voyage, her master Captain ‘Bully’ Forbes, drunkenly predicted that he would make the journey between Liverpool and Melbourne in 60 days. Schomberg departed Liverpool on 6 October 1855 with 430 passengers and 3000 tons cargo including iron rails and equipment intended the build the Geelong Railway and a bridge over the Yarra from Melbourne to Hawthorn. The winds were poor as Schomberg sailed across the equator, slowing her journey considerably. She was 78 days out of Liverpool when she ran aground on a sand-spit near Peterborough, Victoria, on 27 December; the sand spit and the currents were not marked on Forbes’s map. Overnight, the crew launched a lifeboat to find a safe place to land the ship’s passengers. The scouting party returned to Schomberg and advised Forbes that it was best to wait until morning because the rough seas could easily overturn the small lifeboats. The ship’s Chief Officer spotted SS Queen at dawn and signalled the steamer. The master of the SS Queen approached the stranded vessel and all of Schomberg’s passengers were able to disembark safely. The Black Ball Line’s Melbourne agent sent a steamer to retrieve the passengers’ baggage from the Schomberg. Other steamers helped unload her cargo until the weather changed and prevented the salvage teams from accessing the ship. Local merchants Manifold & Bostock bought the wreck and cargo, but did not attempt to salvage the cargo still on board the ship. They eventually sold it on to a Melbourne businessman and two seafarers. After two of the men drowned when they tried to reach Schomberg, salvage efforts were abandoned.32 In 1975, divers from Flagstaff Hill, including Peter Ronald, found an ornate communion set at the wreck. The set comprised a jug, two chalices, a plate and a lid. The lid did not fit any of the other objects and in 1978 a piece of the lid broke off, revealing a glint of gold. As museum staff carefully examined the lid and removed marine growth, they found a diamond ring, which is currently on display in the Great Circle Gallery.33 Flagstaff Hill also holds ship fittings and equipment, personal effects, a lithograph, tickets and photograph from the Schomberg. Most of the artefacts were salvaged from the wreck by Peter Ronald, former director of Flagstaff Hill.

Significance

The Schomberg, which is on the Victorian Heritage Register (VHR S612), has great historical significance as a rare example of a large, fast clipper ship on the England to Australia run, carrying emigrants at the time of the Victorian gold rush. She represents the technical advances made to break sailing records between Europe and Australia. Flagstaff Hill’s collection of artefacts from the Schomberg is significant for its association with the shipwreck, The collection is primarily significant because of the relationship between the objects, as together they have a high potential to interpret the story of the Schomberg. It is archaeologically significant as the remains of an international passenger Ship. It is historically significant for representing aspects of Victoria’s shipping history and for its association with the shipwreck and the ship, which was designed to be fastest and most luxurious of its day

Engine Dynamometer

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village Engine Dynamometer Engine Dynamometer or Steam Engine Indicator in square, fitted oak case. This brass instrument is used to measure and record steam pressure for setting up and adjusting valves on a steam engine

Engine Dynamometer or Steam Engine Indicator in square, fitted oak case. This brass instrument is used to measure and record steam pressure for setting up and adjusting valves on a steam engine. It has an oscillating recording drum with vertical, silver clip attached for holding paper in place around the drum. The drum oscillates left to right. There is a pulley attached to a length of cord, which is attached to the drum. Beside the drum is a fine metal arm, vertically adjustable, small hole in the end to hold a pencil. Inscription stamped into bracket of the arm. The engine indicator is mounted on a hinged side of the case that swings out ready for use. Attached chains prevent the side from opening past vertical. There is storage for other accessories and an empty compartment in the base (where a scale or ruler may have been located). The case has a collapsible wooden handle, brass hinges and two brass, hook-shaped catches. There is a code stamped inside the lid. It contains a brass, ‘T’ shaped steam-cock (or stop cock) with two open ends made of metal pipe with different sized threads. (Turning the handle on top opens and closes the space in the pipe and would close off the flow of steam from one end to the other.) Also inside the case are three different spiral springs, each with a threaded nut on the end that has a threaded hole inside it. Used by Mr Mark Forsythe when chief engineer on the SS Talawena in 1892

Historical information

The steam engine indicator, or dynamometer, is an instrument used on a steam engine (such as that of a vessel or train) to measure and record the change in the pressures of the engine’s cylinders during their operating cycle. The engineer would use it to identify problems or defects such as bad valve settings or constricted steam pipes. It could indicate the difference in efficiency caused by adjustments made to the engine, being able to instantly measure the variation of pressure from the engine stroke at any given time. This force of power would be registered by a pencil, fitted to the adjustable arm, which would trace a line on paper wound around the cylinder. The recorded information could be used in conjunction with mathematical tables. This particular instrument was made by T.S. Mc Innes, one of the better manufacturers of engine indicators. Mc Innes engine indicators were still being used in the mid 1900’s. This specific instrument was used by Mark Forsythe of North Berwial, Scotland and late of Ararat, Victoria when he was chief engineer on the “SS Talawena” in 1892.

Significance

The Port of Warrnambool, in Victoria, harboured steam ships that carried both passengers and cargo along the south west coast in the late 1800’s and into the 1900’s. The engineer of a steam ship was responsible for reaching and maintaining the optimum level of steam energy to serve the locomotion and efficiency of the steam ship. The engineer would use a steam engine indicator to measure and record information to achieve this purpose.

Inscriptions & Markings

“T.S. MC INNES PATENT” and “522 _ _” (last 2 digits are unreadable) pressed into the arm of the brass indicator. “[ ] X ’ stamped inside the lid of the case. The 3 springs all have a number stamped into them: (1) “32” and “12” (2) “12” and “16” [above] “12” (3) “64” and “150” Card that came with instrument “This instrument was used by Mark Forsythe of North Berwial Scotland and late of Ararat, Victoria when chief engineer on the SS Talawena in 1892"

Foghorn

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

a column of air to make a loud sound. Some use vibrating plates or metal reeds, some force air through holes in a revolving cylinder or disk, sounding like a siren, and some use a clockwork mechanism to open the valves that let the air into the horn

Foghorn, plunger type, wood and brass handle with air pump within cylinder, cone shaped horn with adjustable angle, green metal base. Serial number "2160062" under base.

Historical information

A marine foghorn gives an audible navigational signal to warn vessels of dangers, hazards and the presence of other vessels in fog conditions. The foghorn signal is a series of long and short sounds with short or long pauses between them. These common signals conform to a code called the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea and provide such information as whether the vessel is under sail or motor, large or small, aground or at anchor. The designs of foghorns vary but they all use a column of air to make a loud sound. Some use vibrating plates or metal reeds, some force air through holes in a revolving cylinder or disk, sounding like a siren, and some use a clockwork mechanism to open the valves that let the air into the horn. They are usually built to meet particular specifications e.g. U.S.C.G. (US Coast Guard). A plunger foghorn such as this one has a horizontal handle attached to a vertical rod that moves up and down inside a cylinder. When the handle is plunged down, in a similar way to a bicycle pump, the air is forced out of the bottom of the cylinder into a pipe with a bell shaped horn on the end, making a loud, low sound. The vertical rod has holes in the upper section for intake of air. The wider base of the cylinder helps to keep it stable. Other marine warning devices included bells and gongs. Some lighthouses fired small cannon at regular intervals. Steam powered whistles and even explosives have also been used as warning signals. [References: Foghorn, Wikipedia; Plunger type portable fog horn, Elisha Webb & Son Co, elishawebb.com/Catalog%202000/cat044.pdf; Sailing in fog, working-the-sails.com]

Inscriptions & Markings

Serial number "2160062" under base

Foghorn

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

a clockwork mechanism to open the valves that let the air into the horn. They are usually built to meet particular specifications e.g. U.S.C.G. (US Coast Guard). This Tyfon plunger foghorn has a horizontal handle attached to a vertical rod that moves up

Foghorn; plunger type, brass cylinder & horn with adjustable angle, wood handle on plunger & wood base. Inscriptions Inscriptions of maker on foghorn. Made by Kockums, Malmo, Sweden, Tyfon model. C. 1910

Historical information

A marine foghorn gives an audible navigational signal to warn vessels of dangers, hazards and the presence of other vessels in fog conditions. The foghorn signal is a series of long and short sounds with short or long pauses between them. These common signals conform to a code called the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea and provide such information as whether the vessel is under sail or motor, large or small, aground or at anchor. The designs of foghorns vary but they all use a column of air to make a loud sound. Some use vibrating plates or metal reeds, some force air through holes in a revolving cylinder or disk, sounding like a siren, and some use a clockwork mechanism to open the valves that let the air into the horn. They are usually built to meet particular specifications e.g. U.S.C.G. (US Coast Guard). This Tyfon plunger foghorn has a horizontal handle attached to a vertical rod that moves up and down inside a cylinder. When the handle is plunged down, in a similar way to a bicycle pump, the air is forced out of the bottom of the cylinder into a pipe with a bell shaped horn on the end, making a loud, low sound. The wider base of the cylinder helps to keep it stable. The Tyfon foghorn was manufactured in about 1910 by Kochums Mechanical Workshop (Kockums Mechanical Werkstad, Ltd.), Malmo, Sweden. The company was established in 1840, became a Limited company in 1866, and established a shipyard at the Port of Malmo, Sweden, in 1870. The civilian ship production in Malmo ceased in 1987. As well as building ships the company built large industrial and agricultural machinery and maritime goods. Other marine warning devices included bells and gongs. Some lighthouses fired small cannon at regular intervals. Steam powered whistles and even explosives have also been used as warning signals. [References: Foghorn, Wikipedia; Plunger type portable fog horn, Elisha Webb & Son Co, elishawebb.com/Catalog%202000/cat044.pdf; Sailing in fog, working-the-sails.com]

Inscriptions & Markings

Inscribed "Kockums MLK Verkstad. Tyfon Trade Mark Malmo Sweden"

Foghorn

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

is produced and fed into valves that direct air across vibrating metal reeds to produce the required sound. in foggy weather, fog horns are used to pinpoint a vessels position and to indicate how the vessel is sailing in foggy conditions. One blast, when

English Rotary Norwegian Pattern nautical foghorn within a boxed pine varnished case with exposed corner dovetailing, original leather carrying strap, brass side crank, and original copper trumped horn. Card accessory with Directions for Use in both English and French.

Historical information

A foghorn is a device that uses sound to warn of navigational hazards like rocky coastlines, or boats of the presence of other vessels, in foggy conditions. The term is most often used with marine transport. When visual navigation aids such as lighthouses are obscured, foghorns provide an audible warning of rocky outcrops, shoals, headlands, or other dangers to shipping. An early form of fog signal was to use a bell, gong, explosive signal or firing a cannon to alert shipping. From the early 20th century an improved device called the diaphone was used in place of these other devices, The diaphone horn was based directly on the organ stop of the same name invented by Robert Hope-Jones, creator of the Wurlitzer organ. Hope-Jones' design was based on a piston that was closed only at its bottom end and had slots, perpendicular to its axis, cut through its sides, the slotted piston moved within a similarly slotted cylinder. Outside of the cylinder was a reservoir of high-pressure air. Initially, this air would be admitted behind the piston, pushing it forward. When the slots of the piston aligned with those of the cylinder, air passed into the piston, making a sound and pushing the piston back to its starting position, whence the cycle would be repeated. This method of producing a low audible sound was further developed as a fog signal by John Northey of Toronto and these diaphones were powered by compressed air produced by an electric motor or other mechanical means that admitted extremely powerful low-frequency notes. The example in the Flagstaff collection is an early cased and portable diaphone used on pleasure or sailing craft. By manually turning the crank handle air is produced and fed into valves that direct air across vibrating metal reeds to produce the required sound. in foggy weather, fog horns are used to pinpoint a vessels position and to indicate how the vessel is sailing in foggy conditions. One blast, when sailing on starboard tack and two blasts, when sailing on a port tack and three dots, when with wind is behind the vessel.

Significance

Since the automation of lighthouses became common in the 1960s and 1970s, most older foghorn marine installations have been removed to avoid the need to run the complex machinery associated with them, and have been replaced with an electrically powered diaphragm or compressed air horns. The example in the collection is significant as it was used in the early 19th century for sailing vessels was important but these portable crank fog horns have also been superseded by modern electric varieties. Therefore the item has a historical connection with sailing and maritime pursuits from our past.

Inscriptions & Markings

None

Pump

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

pumping action of the lever moves the piston inside the pump up and down. The water is lifted from below the pump through the inlet pipe and into the pump’s cylinder. This action causes the lower valve to close and the piston’s valve opens and the pressure

Pressure pump, hand operated, double acting. Cast metal case, painted red, with steel hose attachments and long metal lever. Pump is bolted to wooden plank. Brand of pump is AJAX, Type L2, Series A pump. Manufactured by McPherson’s Pty Ltd of Melbourne circa 1930’s - 1940’s.

Historical information

This pump is an Ajax Type L2 Series A model, made and sold by McPherson’s Pty Ltd of Melbourne circa 1930’s to 1940’s, is a mechanical, hand operated, constant flow pressure pump. It would have been used to pump fluids from one area to another, for example from a dam to a tank or used as a bilge pump on a small vessel, mounted on the vessel’s bulkhead, floor or deck. This type of hand pump is sometimes called a ‘Reciprocating Suction Pump’. It has a mechanical pumping action of the lever moves the piston inside the pump up and down. The water is lifted from below the pump through the inlet pipe and into the pump’s cylinder. This action causes the lower valve to close and the piston’s valve opens and the pressure within the pump forces the water out of the pump through the exit pipe. The limitation of this type of pump is that it can only raise the water a maximum of about 7 metres from beneath the ground and yields 24-26 Litres per minute. This type of pump could be used for many purposes such as pumping water or fuel. McPherson’s 1940’s advertisement proclaims “For all jobs on the land – irrigation, spraying, tank, plumbing, fire-fighting – there’s a suitable “Ajax” pump. Send us the details of you pumping problem. Our Expert’s advice will help you choose the right pump – the one that will give you most years of PROFITABLE PUMPING.” (The Australasian (Melbourne) Sat. 26th October 1940.) McPherson’s Pty Ltd, the manufacturer, advertised a similar pump to this one in The Australasian (Melbourne) in 1936, calling it the Ajax Double Acting Hand Pump. In 1942 another advertisement advised that a representative for a fire-fighting equipment supplier was visiting the western district of Victoria. The company could now supply double-action two-spray Ajax pumps at lower prices than similar pumps the district had recently purchased from Adelaide. McPHERSON’S FOUNDER and COMPANY TIMELINE 1860 – Thomas McPherson, a Scottish immigrant (c. 1853 ), founded McPherson’s in Melbourne, supplying pig iron (lead ingots imported as ballast in ships) to local manufacturers. 1882 – Thomas McPherson established a warehouse in Collins St Melbourne and included tools, steam fittings and machinery in his wares. The business expanded to include steam saw mills and became known as Thomas McPherson and Sons (William Murray and Edward). 1888 – Thomas passed away and his sons inherited the business. In 1896 William Murray became the sole proprietor after his brother Edward’s death. 1900 – The firm expanded, establishing Acme Bolt Company to manufacture nuts and bolts. 1912 – McPhersons Pty Ltd established a machinery warehouse and showroom in 554-556 Collins St Melbourne. McPherson’s went on to establish branches in Sydney (1911), Adelaide (1921) and Perth (1930) 1917 - McPherson’s supplied ‘dog spikes’ for the transcontinental railway, running from Eastern to Western Australia. 1918 – A tool works set up in Kensington, Melbourne, manufacturing Macson lathes and made machine tools that previously had to be imported. 1924 – The Bolt Works was transferred to a new building in Melbourne. McPhersons began making pumps. 1929 – McPherson retired. His son (Sir) William Edward McPherson (known as ‘WE’), was born in Hawthorne, Melbourne, in 1898. After his education he began work in his father’s Melbourne hardware and machinery business He took over as governing director when his father retired. 1929-1932 – McPherson’s supplied thousands of tons of rivets from its Richmond (Melbourne) Bolt Works for the construction of the Sydney Harbour Bridge. 1936 – McPherson’s Pty Ltd is advertising Ajax Pumps in newspapers 1934 – McPhersons purchased the property adjoining the warehouse in Collins Street, and during 1935-1936 built a new office and showrooms on the site of 546-445 Collins St. 1939 - McPherson’s acquired the Tool Equipment Co. Pty. Ltd and Associated Machine Tools Australia Pty Ltd was formed to separate McPherson’s machine-tool manufacturing and merchandising interests. 1939 – Ajax Pump Works, a foundry and pump manufacturing plant, was established in Tottenham, Melbourne, and the Ajax Bolt and Rivet Co Pty Ltd began manufacturing in New Zealand. 1944 - McPherson’s became a public company, McPherson’s Ltd. 1948 - The Ajax Pump Foundry opened at Kyneton, Victoria and in the post war years it grew to became a large manufacturer. 1980’s – Ajax Pumps brochure lists the address as 6 Buckhurst St, South Melbourne, Vic 3205 with the Telephone number 03 669 3588 1988 - Ajax Pumps acquired the Forrers Company, which was established in 1921. Manufacturing in Ipswich, Queensland, specialising in submersible sewage pumps. 1991 – KSB Ajax was formed, bringing together the companies KSB and Ajax Pumps 1993 – Manufacturing was moved to state-of-the-art premises in Tottenham, Victoria 2001 - The Forrers facility was moved to Tottenham. 2007 - Company name KSB Ajax Pumps was changed to KSB Australia Pty Ltd. 2009 - KSB Australia opened a branch in Townsville, Queensland. 2011 - KSB Australia moved to its dedicated Water and Waste Water Competence Centre in Bundamba, Queensland. DISPLAY OF THIS AJAX PUMP This pump was installed at Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village as part of a working display in the village by the Friends of Flagstaff Hill, in acknowledgement of the dedicated involvement of one of its long serving members, Bob Crossman. The display was officially opened 31st March 2018 and incorporates a restored Furphy Tank and Water Pipe Stand. The pump is used to draw water from the lake, through the water stand pipe and into the reconditioned Furphy Tank.

Significance

This Ajax pump made by McPherson’s Pty Ltd is significant for its association with McPherson’s, a prominent manufacturer of hardware in Victoria. McPherson’s is famous for supplying ‘dog-spikes’ for the transcontinental railway (eastern to western Australia, 1917) and rivets for the Sydney Harbour Bridge (1929-1932). The Ajax pump is also of significance because of its association with McPherson’s Governing Director (Sir) William McPherson, former premier and treasurer in Victoria 1928-1929. The former McPherson’s Pty Ltd building in Collins Street Melbourne is now on the Victorian Heritage Register VHR H0942 This pump is representative of mechanical pumps popular in the early to mid-1900’s and still used today.

Inscriptions & Markings

Embossed on lower section of pump "L2 - 10", "L2 - -1", "AJAX" “(?) –2-1” Embossed on lower handle “3-7” “L – 4” Embossed on attached plate “FOR SPARE PARTS / TYPE L2 / SERIES A / PUMP ASSEMBLED BY T R”

Gas Light Fitting

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village Gas Light Fitting Gas Light Fitting, Brass wall mount of a swinging armed gas bracket, with gate valve. Has heavy concretion. Artefact Reg No S/76. Recovered from the wreck of the Schomberg. When the ship Schomberg

Gas Light Fitting, Brass wall mount of a swinging armed gas bracket, with gate valve. Has heavy concretion. Artefact Reg No S/76. Recovered from the wreck of the Schomberg.

Historical information

When the ship Schomberg was launched in 1855, she was considered the most perfect clipper ship ever to be built. James Blaine’s Black Ball Line had commissioned her to be built for their fleet of passenger liners. At a cost of £43,103, the Aberdeen builders designed her to sail faster than the quick clippers designed by North American Donald McKay. She was a three masted wooden clipper ship, built with diagonal planking of British oat with layers of Scottish larch. This luxury vessel was designed to transport emigrants to Melbourne in superior comfort. She had ventilation ducts to provide air to the lower decks and a dining saloon, smoking room, library and bathrooms for the first class passengers. At the launch of Schomberg’s maiden voyage, her master Captain ‘Bully’ Forbes, drunkenly predicted that he would make the journey between Liverpool and Melbourne in 60 days. Schomberg departed Liverpool on 6 October 1855 with 430 passengers and 3000 tons cargo including iron rails and equipment intended the build the Geelong Railway and a bridge over the Yarra from Melbourne to Hawthorn. The winds were poor as Schomberg sailed across the equator, slowing her journey considerably. She was 78 days out of Liverpool when she ran aground on a sand-spit near Peterborough, Victoria, on 27 December; the sand spit and the currents were not marked on Forbes’s map. Overnight, the crew launched a lifeboat to find a safe place to land the ship’s passengers. The scouting party returned to Schomberg and advised Forbes that it was best to wait until morning because the rough seas could easily overturn the small lifeboats. The ship’s Chief Officer spotted SS Queen at dawn and signalled the steamer. The master of the SS Queen approached the stranded vessel and all of Schomberg’s passengers were able to disembark safely. The Black Ball Line’s Melbourne agent sent a steamer to retrieve the passengers’ baggage from the Schomberg. Other steamers helped unload her cargo until the weather changed and prevented the salvage teams from accessing the ship. Local merchants Manifold & Bostock bought the wreck and cargo, but did not attempt to salvage the cargo still on board the ship. They eventually sold it on to a Melbourne businessman and two seafarers. After two of the men drowned when they tried to reach Schomberg, salvage efforts were abandoned.32 In 1975, divers from Flagstaff Hill, including Peter Ronald, found an ornate communion set at the wreck. The set comprised a jug, two chalices, a plate and a lid. The lid did not fit any of the other objects and in 1978 a piece of the lid broke off, revealing a glint of gold. As museum staff carefully examined the lid and removed marine growth, they found a diamond ring, which is currently on display in the Great Circle Gallery.33 Flagstaff Hill also holds ship fittings and equipment, personal effects, a lithograph, tickets and photograph from the Schomberg. Most of the artefacts were salvaged from the wreck by Peter Ronald, former director of Flagstaff Hill.

Significance

The Schomberg, which is on the Victorian Heritage Register (VHR S612), has great historical significance as a rare example of a large, fast clipper ship on the England to Australia run, carrying emigrants at the time of the Victorian gold rush. She represents the technical advances made to break sailing records between Europe and Australia. Flagstaff Hill’s collection of artefacts from the Schomberg is significant for its association with the shipwreck. The collection is primarily significant because of the relationship between the objects, as together they have a high potential to interpret the story of the Schomberg. It is archaeologically significant as the remains of an international passenger Ship. It is historically significant for representing aspects of Victoria’s shipping history and for its association with the shipwreck and the ship, which was designed to be fastest and most luxurious of its day

Gas Light Fitting

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village Gas Light Fitting Gas Light Fitting, brass has small gate-valve in line and a three armed diffuser holder. Recovered from the wreck of the Schomberg. Artefact Reg No S/77 When the ship Schomberg was launched in 1855

Gas Light Fitting, brass has small gate-valve in line and a three armed diffuser holder. Recovered from the wreck of the Schomberg. Artefact Reg No S/77

Historical information

When the ship Schomberg was launched in 1855, she was considered the most perfect clipper ship ever to be built. James Blaine’s Black Ball Line had commissioned her to be built for their fleet of passenger liners. At a cost of £43,103, the Aberdeen builders designed her to sail faster than the quick clippers designed by North American Donald McKay. She was a three masted wooden clipper ship, built with diagonal planking of British oat with layers of Scottish larch. This luxury vessel was designed to transport emigrants to Melbourne in superior comfort. She had ventilation ducts to provide air to the lower decks and a dining saloon, smoking room, library and bathrooms for the first class passengers. At the launch of Schomberg’s maiden voyage, her master Captain ‘Bully’ Forbes, drunkenly predicted that he would make the journey between Liverpool and Melbourne in 60 days. Schomberg departed Liverpool on 6 October 1855 with 430 passengers and 3000 tons cargo including iron rails and equipment intended the build the Geelong Railway and a bridge over the Yarra from Melbourne to Hawthorn. The winds were poor as Schomberg sailed across the equator, slowing her journey considerably. She was 78 days out of Liverpool when she ran aground on a sand-spit near Peterborough, Victoria, on 27 December; the sand spit and the currents were not marked on Forbes’s map. Overnight, the crew launched a lifeboat to find a safe place to land the ship’s passengers. The scouting party returned to Schomberg and advised Forbes that it was best to wait until morning because the rough seas could easily overturn the small lifeboats. The ship’s Chief Officer spotted SS Queen at dawn and signalled the steamer. The master of the SS Queen approached the stranded vessel and all of Schomberg’s passengers were able to disembark safely. The Black Ball Line’s Melbourne agent sent a steamer to retrieve the passengers’ baggage from the Schomberg. Other steamers helped unload her cargo until the weather changed and prevented the salvage teams from accessing the ship. Local merchants Manifold & Bostock bought the wreck and cargo, but did not attempt to salvage the cargo still on board the ship. They eventually sold it on to a Melbourne businessman and two seafarers. After two of the men drowned when they tried to reach Schomberg, salvage efforts were abandoned.32 In 1975, divers from Flagstaff Hill, including Peter Ronald, found an ornate communion set at the wreck. The set comprised a jug, two chalices, a plate and a lid. The lid did not fit any of the other objects and in 1978 a piece of the lid broke off, revealing a glint of gold. As museum staff carefully examined the lid and removed marine growth, they found a diamond ring, which is currently on display in the Great Circle Gallery.33 Flagstaff Hill also holds ship fittings and equipment, personal effects, a lithograph, tickets and photograph from the Schomberg. Most of the artefacts were salvaged from the wreck by Peter Ronald, former director of Flagstaff Hill.

Significance

The Schomberg, which is on the Victorian Heritage Register (VHR S612), has great historical significance as a rare example of a large, fast clipper ship on the England to Australia run, carrying emigrants at the time of the Victorian gold rush. She represents the technical advances made to break sailing records between Europe and Australia. Flagstaff Hill’s collection of artefacts from the Schomberg is significant for its association with the shipwreck. The collection is primarily significant because of the relationship between the objects, as together they have a high potential to interpret the story of the Schomberg. It is archaeologically significant as the remains of an international passenger Ship. It is historically significant for representing aspects of Victoria’s shipping history and for its association with the shipwreck and the ship, which was designed to be fastest and most luxurious of its day

Pressure Gauge

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village Pressure Gauge Pressure Gauge section, circular section of gauge with glass missing attached to a gate-valve. Recovered from the wreck of the Loch Ard. Artefact Reg No LA/74. HISTORY OF THE LOCH ARD The LOCH ARD

Pressure Gauge section, circular section of gauge with glass missing attached to a gate-valve. Recovered from the wreck of the Loch Ard. Artefact Reg No LA/74.

Historical information

HISTORY OF THE LOCH ARD The LOCH ARD belonged to the famous Loch Line which sailed many ships from England to Australia. Built in Glasgow by Barclay, Curdle and Co. in 1873, the LOCH ARD was a three-masted square rigged iron sailing ship. The ship measured 262ft 7" (79.87m) in length, 38ft (11.58m) in width, 23ft (7m) in depth and had a gross tonnage of 1693 tons. The LOCH ARD's main mast measured a massive 150ft (45.7m) in height. LOCH ARD made three trips to Australia and one trip to Calcutta before its final voyage. LOCH ARD left England on March 2, 1878, under the command of Captain Gibbs, a newly married, 29 year old. She was bound for Melbourne with a crew of 37, plus 17 passengers and a load of cargo. The general cargo reflected the affluence of Melbourne at the time. On board were straw hats, umbrella, perfumes, clay pipes, pianos, clocks, confectionary, linen and candles, as well as a heavier load of railway irons, cement, lead and copper. There were items included that intended for display in the Melbourne International Exhibition in 1880. The voyage to Port Phillip was long but uneventful. At 3am on June 1, 1878, Captain Gibbs was expecting to see land and the passengers were becoming excited as they prepared to view their new homeland in the early morning. But LOCH ARD was running into a fog which greatly reduced visibility. Captain Gibbs was becoming anxious as there was no sign of land or the Cape Otway lighthouse. At 4am the fog lifted. A man aloft announced that he could see breakers. The sheer cliffs of Victoria's west coast came into view, and Captain Gibbs realised that the ship was much closer to them than expected. He ordered as much sail to be set as time would permit and then attempted to steer the vessel out to sea. On coming head on into the wind, the ship lost momentum, the sails fell limp and LOCH ARD's bow swung back. Gibbs then ordered the anchors to be released in an attempt to hold its position. The anchors sank some 50 fathoms - but did not hold. By this time LOCH ARD was among the breakers and the tall cliffs of Mutton Bird Island rose behind the ship. Just half a mile from the coast, the ship's bow was suddenly pulled around by the anchor. The captain tried to tack out to sea, but the ship struck a reef at the base of Mutton Bird Island, near Port Campbell. Waves broke over the ship and the top deck was loosened from the hull. The masts and rigging came crashing down knocking passengers and crew overboard. When a lifeboat was finally launched, it crashed into the side of LOCH ARD and capsized. Tom Pearce, who had launched the boat, managed to cling to its overturned hull and shelter beneath it. He drifted out to sea and then on the flood tide came into what is now known as LOCH ARD Gorge. He swam to shore, bruised and dazed, and found a cave in which to shelter. Some of the crew stayed below deck to shelter from the falling rigging but drowned when the ship slipped off the reef into deeper water. Eva Carmichael had raced onto deck to find out what was happening only to be confronted by towering cliffs looming above the stricken ship. In all the chaos, Captain Gibbs grabbed Eva and said, "If you are saved Eva, let my dear wife know that I died like a sailor". That was the last Eva Carmichael saw of the captain. She was swept off the ship by a huge wave. Eva saw Tom Pearce on a small rocky beach and yelled to attract his attention. He dived in and swam to the exhausted woman and dragged her to shore. He took her to the cave and broke open case of brandy which had washed up on the beach. He opened a bottle to revive the unconscious woman. A few hours later Tom scaled a cliff in search of help. He followed hoof prints and came by chance upon two men from nearby Glenample Station three and a half miles away. In a state of exhaustion, he told the men of the tragedy. Tom returned to the gorge while the two men rode back to the station to get help. By the time they reached LOCH ARD Gorge, it was cold and dark. The two shipwreck survivors were taken to Glenample Station to recover. Eva stayed at the station for six weeks before returning to Ireland, this time by steamship. In Melbourne, Tom Pearce received a hero's welcome. He was presented with the first gold medal of the Royal Humane Society of Victoria and a £1000 cheque from the Victorian Government. Concerts were performed to honour the young man's bravery and to raise money for those who lost family in the LOCH ARD disaster. Of the 54 crew members and passengers on board, only two survived: the apprentice, Tom Pearce and the young woman passenger, Eva Carmichael, who lost all of her family in the tragedy. Ten days after the LOCH ARD tragedy, salvage rights to the wreck were sold at auction for £2,120. Cargo valued at £3,000 was salvaged and placed on the beach, but most washed back into the sea when another storm developed. The wreck of LOCH ARD still lies at the base of Mutton Bird Island. Much of the cargo has now been salvaged and some was washed up into what is now known as LOCH ARD Gorge. Cargo and artefacts have also been illegally salvaged over many years before protective legislation was introduced. One of the most unlikely pieces of cargo to have survived the shipwreck was a Minton porcelain peacock - one of only nine in the world. The peacock was destined for the Melbourne International Exhibition in 1880. It had been well packed, which gave it adequate protection during the violent storm. Today, the Minton peacock can be seen at the Flagstaff Hill Maritime Museum in Warrnambool. From Australia's most dramatic shipwreck it has now become Australia's most valuable shipwreck artefact and is one of very few 'objects' on the Victorian State Heritage Register.

Significance

Flagstaff Hill’s collection of artefacts from LOCH ARD is significant for being one of the largest collections of artefacts from this shipwreck in Victoria. It is significant for its association with the shipwreck, which is on the Victorian Heritage Register (VHR S417). The collection is significant because of the relationship between the objects, as together they have a high potential to interpret the story of the LOCH ARD. The LOCH ARD collection is archaeologically significant as the remains of a large international passenger and cargo ship. The LOCH ARD collection is historically significant for representing aspects of Victoria’s shipping history and its potential to interpret sub-theme 1.5 of Victoria’s Framework of Historical Themes (living with natural processes). The collection is also historically significant for its association with the LOCH ARD, which was one of the worst and best known shipwrecks in Victoria’s history.

Bugle

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

is a simple, light weight, musical instrument belonging to the ‘brass’ group of instruments and played by blowing air into the mouthpiece. A variety of notes can be obtained by changing the shape of the bugler’s lips when blowing – there are no valves

Bugle, silver, with brass mouthpiece. Presented to the Warrnambool Volunteer Corps. on 18-6-1861 by the Warrnambool Ladies. It is made from long tube of metal, narrow at the mouth end and gradually flaring to a wider at the bell shape at the other end. The tube is shaped into 3 bends. The front of the bell has an elaborate design of a ribbon banner attached above an oval floral wreath enclosing an inscription. The outer rim of the bell has an impressed ancient Greek geometric border.

Historical information

A bugle is a simple, light weight, musical instrument belonging to the ‘brass’ group of instruments and played by blowing air into the mouthpiece. A variety of notes can be obtained by changing the shape of the bugler’s lips when blowing – there are no valves. The flared shape of the tube gives a very mellow sound. Bugles have been used for hundreds of years for communicating instructions, particularly in battles, and announcements such as calls to assemble and various other routines of the day, particularly for infantry and military units. Historic records show that a bugle was used for military signals at Hanover in 1758. In more modern times the bugle is most often used for ceremonial purposes, and as a symbol in the Rifles corps. This beautiful silver bugle has been described by one reporter as “… of pure silver, and is a most exquisite piece of colonial workmanship”. It was presented to the Warrnambool Rifle Volunteers by Lady Helpman, on behalf of the Ladies of the District of Warrnambool, on June 18th, 1861. Lady Helpman’s husband, Captain Benjamin Franklin Helpman, was appointed as Warrnambool Harbourmaster that same year and performed the role until 1869. In 1869 he also became a collector of Customs. The gift of this silver bugle was presented to commanding officer of the Warrnambool Volunteer Rifle Corps., Captain Bushe, who then passed it on to the Warrnambool Volunteer Band’s Bugler Corrigan. On 11th August 2016, in a well-attended ceremony at Flagstaff Hill, the Australian Army handed over custodianship of two very significant historical items - the 1885 W. Clarke Trophy and the 1861 Warrnambool Ladies Silver Bugle – to Warrnambool City Council, and Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, who proudly received them. Both the W. Clarke Trophy and the silver bugle are strongly connected to the Warrnambool Garrison, a Victorian State Heritage Listed site at Flagstaff Hill. Below is the transcription of the very inspiring and emotional presentation ceremony of 1861, as reported in The Warrnambool Examiner, Friday 21st June 1861 … PRESENTATION OF A SILVER BUGLE TO THE WARRNAMBOOL RIFLE VOLUNTEERS When we chronicled last month the enthusiastic manner in which the Warrnambool Volunteers celebrated the natal day of their beloved sovereign [Queen Victoria born 24th May 1819], we were correct in saying that it was the most successful gathering in this town, but successful as it was, it must give way to the demonstration on Tuesday last [18th June 1861], when the ladies of Warrnambool presented a silver bugle to the corps. The weather during the fore part of the day was very threatening, and it was fully anticipated the ceremony would have to be held in the Temperance Hall, which was prepared in readiness for the occasion. Whether, however, Captain Bushe had made special arrangements with the clerk of the weather, we cannot say, but certain it is that just before the volunteers mustered “Old Sol” “turned out” in fine style, and kept a bright face during the remainder of the day. At two o’clock, p.m., the company assembled in front of the Municipal Council Chambers, and, preceded by the band, Captain Bushe, and Mr. Drill Instructor Bernard, and accompanied by a large concourse of spectators, marched down Timor Street to the parade ground, which presented an exceedingly gay appearance. A large arch of flags was erected on a rising part of the ground, and a tent for the ladies, and refreshment tents afforded shelter in case the weather should have been unpropitious. The volunteers were then put through various manoeuvers, including forming into squares, marching and counter-marching to various points, indicated by flags, and each time on passing the band, the musicians played popular airs. After some time being spent in this manner, the volunteers were marched up in front of the ladies’ tent, were formed in a hollow square, and presented arms. At this point of the proceedings the spectators at the rear of the volunteers kept pressing forward with so much ardour, that it was almost impossible for the latter to keep in perfect line. Mrs. Helpman, lady of Lieutenant Helpman R.N., now appeared on a platform in front of the tent, accompanied by Mrs. Breton, lady of Dr. Breton, the surgeon to the corps. Mrs. Helpman then proceeded to read the following address, after which she handed the bugle to Captain Bushe, who in turn handed the beautiful present to Bugler Corrigan. The instrument is of pure silver, and is a most exquisite piece of colonial workmanship: - - - - Captain Bushe, Officers, Non-commissioned Officers, and Gentlemen of the Warrnambool Rifle Company. It is my pleasing duty to convey to you in the name of the ladies of this District their high appreciation of your patriotism as Citizen Soldiers of Victoria. I feel proud of the honor of being commissioned this day to present you in their names this SILVER BUGLE, inscribed with the motto – “Armed for the Right,” feeling confident that should its notes ever summon you to the defence of the land of our adoption, it will ever be found the rallying point for you, the national guardians of our “Hearths and Altars.” The anniversary of a glorious victory obtained by a British army, in defence of the liberties of the World, has been chosen for this occasion, as calling to mind the valor of our sires, and as showing that “Armed for the Right,” you must always be triumphant. [Battle of Waterloo, Belgium June 18, 1815, defeat Napoleon Bonaparte.] I now commit this bugle to your charge, relying upon your Patriotism, Valor, and Honor. “May God protect Her Majesty.” - - - - After a short pause Captain Bushe, with considerable emotion, replied as follows: - - - - To you, Mrs. Helpman, and the ladies in whose names you have presented to us this bugle, on behalf of the Warrnambool Volunteers, I return my sincere thanks. A gift as handsome and so valuable reflects honor on the givers as well as the receivers, and tells far better than ever could words of mine of your good taste, your liberality, and your kindness. That so many fair women should pay us this compliment is indeed something to be proud of, and as a mark of your approbation, and as a graceful recognition of our services in arming for the defence of our Queen and adopted country, will, I trust, make us more steadfast in the cause we have espoused, and induce others to follow in our footsteps. The confidence with which you rely on our patriotism, our courage, and our readiness to defend you, I hope, will never be misplaced, and if the time should ever come when the notes of this bugle will be heard amidst the din of war, then, I am confident (and I say it without boasting), that the Warrnambool Volunteers – “Armed for the Right” – will be found manfully fighting, whilst life remains in them; and, if needs be, laying down that life in defence of their homes, their liberties, and those that are most dear to them. Ladies, this day is one that will long be remembered by us; ‘twill be, as it were, a halting place in memory, to which we will look back with gratification, and with pride; and, if the day of actual warfare I have just spoken of should arrive, then will be recollection of it, and of the bright eyes now beaming on us, nerve us to deeds of daring and of valor – deeds that will make us still more deserving of your esteem - more worthy of your reliance and your trust. Again, ladies, for myself and the members of my company, I thank you. - - - - Three hearty cheers were given by the volunteers for the ladies, and the former were allowed to ground arms and disperse for a few minutes. The assembly was soon sounded and briskly the volunteers responded to the “call of duty.” They were again exercised by Mr. Bernard, and delighted the spectators by firing in “extended skirmishing” order. The scene at this juncture looked peculiarly interesting and gay. The sun was shining out most beautifully. In the centre of the ground were some hundreds of spectators, while on the heights the volunteers appeared at various intervals engaged in advancing and retiring, and apparently in close engagement with an enemy. We much regret that no photographist was on the ground with an apparatus, for such a picture would have been worth taking, and would have formed an elegant souvenir of the day. “All things must have an end,” and at last the volunteers assembled in sections of four deep, and in that order marched to the front of the Council Chambers, where they were dismissed, each man impressed with the pleasant satisfaction that he had “done his duty.” In the evening a re-union took place at Wall’s Family Hotel, at which upwards of fifty ladies and gentlemen were present. The affair was quite impromptu, not a word being spoken of it until the afternoon, and yet it was the happiest party we have seen in the district. Everybody appeared determined to enjoy themselves, and the arrangements for the supper &c., were most creditable to Host Wall, who gave an excellent spread, considering the short time at his disposal. The company did not separate until about four o’clock in the morning. In concluding our remarks we cannot but compliment the Warrnambool Volunteers on their appearance, even although we may be open to the charge of egotism, seeing that we belong to the corps also. The great improvement which the volunteers show is to be attributed greatly to the untiring exertions of Mr. Drill Instructor Bernard. Since he arrived in this District, the corps has almost doubled itself, and bids fair soon to become the leading one in the Western District. The number is now 85, including officers, band, &c. On Tuesday, the total number on the ground was 63, a fact which speaks well for the corps. The band at present consists of eleven performers, wo are rapidly improving under the fostering care of Bugler Corrigan, and we trust next summer the ladies of this district will be agreeably entertained by the performances of the Warrnambool Volunteer Band. [REFERENCES: “1860 Warrnambool” photograph text, Picture Victoria, Corangamite Libraries http://www.picturevictoria.vic.gov.au/site/corangamite/wmbl/7756.html; Bugle, Wikipedia; Presentation of a Silver Bugle, Warrnambool Examiner, 21st June 1861; Helpman, Benjamin Franklin (1814-1874); Australian Dictionary of Biography http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/helpman-benjamin-franklin-2176]

Significance

The Silver Bugle is locally significant to the community of Warrnambool for its connection to the Warrnambool Volunteer Rifle Corps., which formed part of the original Warrnambool Garrison to protect the Warrnambool Harbour. The site of the 1888 Warrnambool Garrison and Fortifications is Victorian State Heritage Listed significant for its intact and operational nature, and is one of the best preserved pieces of Victoria’s early colonial heritage.

Inscriptions & Markings

On ribbon banner “Armed for the Right”. Within the wreath “TO THE / WARRNAMBOOL / VOLUNTEER RIFLE COMPANY / this tribute of due appreciation / is presented by / THE LADIES / of the District / Warrnambool 18th June / 1861”

Pipe

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

is connected to a 6.5cm diameter wall flange (via a flow tap and an adjustable swivel valve) at one end, and to a screw-in square coupling with a nozzle or gas jet at the other end. The copper pipe is dented and corroded with three holes. The brass attachments

This pipe is a gas lamp fitting, recovered from the wreck of the LOCH ARD. This extensively corroded fitting is made of brass and copper alloy. It comprises a 31 cm copper pipe of 1.5cm diameter which is connected to a 6.5cm diameter wall flange (via a flow tap and an adjustable swivel valve) at one end, and to a screw-in square coupling with a nozzle or gas jet at the other end. The copper pipe is dented and corroded with three holes. The brass attachments are more robust cast metal but the adjustable mechanisms are concreted into immobility by ocean sediment. No discernible maker’s marks. In unrestored but fair condition.

Historical information

This artefact is a functional, non-decorative fitting that essentially transports gas from a wall attachment to a lamp. It is a brass and copper gas lamp fitting, designed to direct and control the flow of gas from a flanged wall fitting to an exit nozzle that was lit. It was raised from the LOCH ARD shipwreck site by Flagstaff Hill divers in 1972. Related pieces can be found in the Maritime Village collection. The LOCH ARD left Gravesend (London) on 2 March 1878, bound for Melbourne, with a crew of 37, 17 passengers, and a diverse and valuable cargo of manufactured goods, luxury items, and refined metal; some of which was to be on show at Melbourne’s first International Exhibition in 1880. At 3 am, 1 June 1878, the ship was wrecked against the high limestone cliffs of Mutton Bird Island on Victoria’s south west coast near Port Campbell. Only two people survived the disaster — Tom Pearce, a male crew member, and Eva Carmichael, a female passenger. The cargo proved too difficult to salvage in the vessel’s exposed condition and was largely written off. The manifest of goods in the LOCH ARD’s holds included “Fittings gas (4 cases)”. The gas lighting of streets, public buildings, and the dwellings of wealthier private citizens, was already well advanced in the cities and major towns of the Australian colonies. In 1841 Sydney was the first to be gas lit with 23 street lamps, 106 hotel lamps, and 200 private residences connected to the Darlinghurst “gasometer” by an underground network of metal pipes. “The dim days of oil and tallow are gone by!” pronounced one newspaper, flushed with civic pride. The 1850s Gold Rush promoted a similar attitude of confidence and affluence in the Colony of Victoria. In 1855 Melbourne was connected to its own system of subterranean gas pipes despite the same high rates of 25 shillings per 1000 cubic feet being charged, (reduced to 15 shillings in 1865 with cheaper sources of coal). By1858 Kyneton had its own gasworks to light the town (fuelled by eucalyptus leaves) and Geelong followed suit in 1860. Had the LOCH ARD reached its intended destination in 1878, it is probable that the 4 cases of brass gas light fittings on board would have found a ready market. HISTORY OF THE LOCH ARD The LOCH ARD belonged to the famous Loch Line which sailed many ships from England to Australia. Built in Glasgow by Barclay, Curdle and Co. in 1873, the LOCH ARD was a three-masted square rigged iron sailing ship. The ship measured 262ft 7" (79.87m) in length, 38ft (11.58m) in width, 23ft (7m) in depth and had a gross tonnage of 1693 tons. The LOCH ARD's main mast measured a massive 150ft (45.7m) in height. LOCH ARD made three trips to Australia and one trip to Calcutta before its final voyage. LOCH ARD left England on March 2, 1878, under the command of Captain Gibbs, a newly married, 29 year old. She was bound for Melbourne with a crew of 37, plus 17 passengers and a load of cargo. The general cargo reflected the affluence of Melbourne at the time. On board were straw hats, umbrella, perfumes, clay pipes, pianos, clocks, confectionary, linen and candles, as well as a heavier load of railway irons, cement, lead and copper. There were items included that intended for display in the Melbourne International Exhibition in 1880. The voyage to Port Phillip was long but uneventful. At 3am on June 1, 1878, Captain Gibbs was expecting to see land and the passengers were becoming excited as they prepared to view their new homeland in the early morning. But LOCH ARD was running into a fog which greatly reduced visibility. Captain Gibbs was becoming anxious as there was no sign of land or the Cape Otway lighthouse. At 4am the fog lifted. A man aloft announced that he could see breakers. The sheer cliffs of Victoria's west coast came into view, and Captain Gibbs realised that the ship was much closer to them than expected. He ordered as much sail to be set as time would permit and then attempted to steer the vessel out to sea. On coming head on into the wind, the ship lost momentum, the sails fell limp and LOCH ARD's bow swung back. Gibbs then ordered the anchors to be released in an attempt to hold its position. The anchors sank some 50 fathoms - but did not hold. By this time LOCH ARD was among the breakers and the tall cliffs of Mutton Bird Island rose behind the ship. Just half a mile from the coast, the ship's bow was suddenly pulled around by the anchor. The captain tried to tack out to sea, but the ship struck a reef at the base of Mutton Bird Island, near Port Campbell. Waves broke over the ship and the top deck was loosened from the hull. The masts and rigging came crashing down knocking passengers and crew overboard. When a lifeboat was finally launched, it crashed into the side of LOCH ARD and capsized. Tom Pearce, who had launched the boat, managed to cling to its overturned hull and shelter beneath it. He drifted out to sea and then on the flood tide came into what is now known as LOCH ARD Gorge. He swam to shore, bruised and dazed, and found a cave in which to shelter. Some of the crew stayed below deck to shelter from the falling rigging but drowned when the ship slipped off the reef into deeper water. Eva Carmichael had raced onto deck to find out what was happening only to be confronted by towering cliffs looming above the stricken ship. In all the chaos, Captain Gibbs grabbed Eva and said, "If you are saved Eva, let my dear wife know that I died like a sailor". That was the last Eva Carmichael saw of the captain. She was swept off the ship by a huge wave. Eva saw Tom Pearce on a small rocky beach and yelled to attract his attention. He dived in and swam to the exhausted woman and dragged her to shore. He took her to the cave and broke open case of brandy which had washed up on the beach. He opened a bottle to revive the unconscious woman. A few hours later Tom scaled a cliff in search of help. He followed hoof prints and came by chance upon two men from nearby Glenample Station three and a half miles away. In a state of exhaustion, he told the men of the tragedy. Tom returned to the gorge while the two men rode back to the station to get help. By the time they reached LOCH ARD Gorge, it was cold and dark. The two shipwreck survivors were taken to Glenample Station to recover. Eva stayed at the station for six weeks before returning to Ireland, this time by steamship. In Melbourne, Tom Pearce received a hero's welcome. He was presented with the first gold medal of the Royal Humane Society of Victoria and a £1000 cheque from the Victorian Government. Concerts were performed to honour the young man's bravery and to raise money for those who lost family in the LOCH ARD disaster. Of the 54 crew members and passengers on board, only two survived: the apprentice, Tom Pearce and the young woman passenger, Eva Carmichael, who lost all of her family in the tragedy. Ten days after the LOCH ARD tragedy, salvage rights to the wreck were sold at auction for £2,120. Cargo valued at £3,000 was salvaged and placed on the beach, but most washed back into the sea when another storm developed. The wreck of LOCH ARD still lies at the base of Mutton Bird Island. Much of the cargo has now been salvaged and some was washed up into what is now known as LOCH ARD Gorge. Cargo and artefacts have also been illegally salvaged over many years before protective legislation was introduced. One of the most unlikely pieces of cargo to have survived the shipwreck was a Minton porcelain peacock - one of only nine in the world. The peacock was destined for the Melbourne International Exhibition in 1880. It had been well packed, which gave it adequate protection during the violent storm. Today, the Minton peacock can be seen at the Flagstaff Hill Maritime Museum in Warrnambool. From Australia's most dramatic shipwreck it has now become Australia's most valuable shipwreck artefact and is one of very few 'objects' on the Victorian State Heritage Register.

Significance

The LOCH ARD shipwreck is of State significance — Victorian Heritage Register S417. Flagstaff Hill’s collection of artefacts from LOCH ARD is significant for being one of the largest collections of artefacts from this shipwreck in Victoria. It is significant for its association with the shipwreck, which is on the Victorian Heritage Register (VHR S417). The collection is significant because of the relationship between the objects, as together they have a high potential to interpret the story of the LOCH ARD. The LOCH ARD collection is archaeologically significant as the remains of a large international passenger and cargo ship. The LOCH ARD collection is historically significant for representing aspects of Victoria’s shipping history and its potential to interpret sub-theme 1.5 of Victoria’s Framework of Historical Themes (living with natural processes). The collection is also historically significant for its association with the LOCH ARD, which was one of the worst and best known shipwrecks in Victoria’s history.