Federation University Historical Collection
Document, Zelda Martin, Central Victorian Goldmining towns - Boom Towns or Ghost Towns?, c1996
Zelda Martin was a PhD candidate at the University of Melbourne.[.1] 4th item in light blue display book titled Research Approach/Overview of Chapters/Confirmation of Canditure/Chapters1,2,3&4 of proposed thesis.
*Twenty-seven page article on Victorian goldfields towns titled: Central Victorian Goldmining Towns - Boom Towns or Ghost Towns. The article was written during the author's PhD study. It outlines the context methodology, and resources and the chapters of the proposed thesis: (1) Central Victorian Goldmining Towns - The Context (2) Contemporary Views of the Factors Necessary for Town Growth (3) Outward Manifestations of Town Growth (4) The Trappings of Government (5-9) The Main Towns and Their Hinterland.
[.2] 5th item in Light Blue display book as above item.
*Chapter 1 of proposed thesis titled 'Pick, Shovel and Tin Dish Mining.' Covers in Section A: Central Victoria - Pre 1851: Aborigines in Central Victoria, Squatters, and Government. Section B: The years 1851-1854: The Early Gold Rushes, Government Reaction, Township Surveys, Legislation, Town Development, Local Government and Early Settlement.
[.3] 6th item in Light Blue display book as above item.
*2A of proposed thesis titled 'Contemporary Views of the Factors Necessary for Town Growth'. Similar information to Chapter 1 plus extra re towns and maps. Sections: Introduction, Context of Place - Geographical Towns Listed, The Context of Time - Pre1851 Aborigines, Governance of Port Phillip, The Squatters, The Villages of Central Victorian Highlands, Conclusion, Condensed Version of Chapter2B.
[.4] 7th item in Light Blue display book as above item.
*Chapter2B of proposed thesis. Sections: Area of Research, Schools, Banks, Newspapers, Progress Association, Town Development - Sandhurst (Bendigo), Ballarat, Castlemaine,, Maryborough, Ararat and Stawell.
[.5] 8th item in Light Blue display book as above item.
*Chapter 3 of proposed thesis titled 'Outward Manifestations of Town Growth'. Sections: Introduction, Contemporary Writing, Educationalists, The Bankers, The Townsfolk, Current Theory, General Theories of Urban Development, and Conclusion.
[.6] 9th item in Light Blue display book as above item.
*Chapter 4 of proposed thesis titled 'Trappings of Government' Sections: Introduction, Early Government Attitudes to Mining and Town Development, Law and Order, Township Surveys, Legislation, Local Government, Transport and Communication, The People and Lobbyists.
[.7] 10th item in Light Blue display book as above item.
*'The Rise and Fall of Central Victorian Goldmining Towns'. Includes a map showing main Goldfields, a table showing towns and villages at two points in time - 1857 and 1871; a Bibliography of Primary and Secondary Sources.
[.8] Resource No1. Black display book titled Local Towns 1 :
Amphitheatre / Mountain Hut:
Post Office Directory
*Post Office Directory 1869 - Alphabetical Listing by Occupation
*Ararat - Prominent Citizens of 1858
*Excerpts from 'Avoca The Early Years', Margery and Betty Beavis; pg1 - Beginnings; pg11 - The Midas Touch; pg25 - Local Gold Escorts; pg27 - A Town is Born; pg51- The Administration of Justice; pg53 - The Ways of the Law; pg61 - News of the Day; pg65 - A Time to Play; pg72 - Land Ownership
*Post Office Directory (Bailliere's) 1869
*Tourism Map and Information of area
*Historic Avoca - A 5.5km Tour
*Avoca & the Pyrenees Region - information pamphlet
*Early History of Ballarat - Ballarat Historical Society, Publication No.1: origin of the name; Ballaarat - the Beginning; Fabulous Yields from the Ballaarat Goldfield; *Streetscape Lydiard Street.
*Hand drawn map showing Leigh River, Old Portland Bay Road, plaque on road to Colac; etc.
*Newspaper article re 'The Theatre Royal' ( which stood in the vicinity of the current Owen Williams store) - 'The News'15/04/1998
*Article - 'Ballarat's Mechanics' Institute Lives On' Ballarat Courier, 14/09/1985
*Article - Standing the Test of Time' The News 17/11/1993 re The Mechanics Institute & picture of the Reading Room
*'Ballarat a Study of a City, Phyllis Reichl, pub. Nelson, 1968; no.3 place, time and people field studies series
*Investigator Vol.33 No.2, 1998 Geelong Historical Society. Article on pg75 describes Ballarat in 1861
*Folded poster - 'Ballarat 100' a history of telegraph communication, pub. Telecom.
Beaufort (Fiery Creek):
*Post Office Directory
[.9] Resource No.2 Black Folder Titled Towns cont.No2
*'Family & Local History at the Bendigo Library - 1851-2001 150 years of gold'.
*Bendigo Government Camp in 1853 illustration; key to sketch and names of Government officers stationed there
*Excerpts from 'Bendigo and Vicinity' Adolph Haman
*The Bendigo Goldfield Registry - pgs 1-7 Introduction
*Excerpt: 'Breaking the Grip'
*Excerpt: The Most Go-Ahead Place
*Excerpts from 'History of Bendigo' - anti license agitation; laying out of town; proposed railway; gold calls and dividends; the Sandhurst Municipality; journalism
*Excerpts from 'Aspects of Early Blackwood - The Goldfield, the Landmarks, the Pioneers' Alan J Buckingham and Margaret F
Hitchcock, JG Publishing,1980
*A Brief History
*Investigator Vol1 No.2 Feb 1966 Geelong Historical Society. Pg3 - Article re gold escort route - Mt Alexander to Adelaide - (see a simple monument on the Western Highway a few miles out of Horsham. Pg 15 - Ballarat Excursion - re the finding of gold.
*Three articles published by Buninyong and District Historical Society Inc: (Magpie Exploration; Finding Gold In The Green Hills; Magpie Exploration; Burnt Bridge to Cargarie to Mt Mercer)
*Copies of newspaper articles/items
*Buninyong Street Directory
*In the Beginning There Was Carisbrook
*The History of the Carisbrook Racecourse
Carngham / Snake Valley:
*Directory 1865-1866 - Alphabetical and Street
*Poster - Castlemaine A Contemporary Guide "The Great Centre" 1866 - A Contemporary Guide to the Fascinating Past
*Pamphlet - Castlemaine District Community Hospital
*Map - Castlemaine, Maldon & Surrounding Districts
*Map and Information - The Dry Diggings Track - a 55kl walk among historic goldfields relics ( Castlemaine Fryerstown Vaughan Mt Franklin Hepburn Daylesford)
*Postcard - Former Court House
*Directory 1867 - Alphabetical, Trade
[.10] Resource No.3 Grey folder Titled Towns 3 Creswick to Maryborough
*Booklet - "Creswick Cemetery Walk"
*Booklet - The Buried Rivers of Gold Heritage Trail Creswick
*Creswick Historical Museum Information Sheet
*Chronological History of Creswick
*Alphabetical Directory of the Borough of Creswick
*Creswick's Creek Directory 1856
*Historic Creswick Walking Tour
*A Brief Account of the Schools of Creswick - Past and Present
*100 Years of Railway Travel in Creswick
*The Berry Deep Leads
*The Spence Home at Jackass Gully in the Creswick State Forest ( William Guthrie Spence - Pioneer)
*The New Australian Mine and the 1882 Disaster
*Creswick District News, Issue 7, July August 1999
*The Creswick Miners Walk - Information and Map
*Clunes Street Directory
*Notable Bushfires in Daylesford District Over More Than a Century - "Black Thursday" 1851; 1862; 1899; the Disastrous Hepburn Fire of 1906; 1939; 1944; 1969.
*Post Office Directory -Daylesford and Hepburn
Dunolly / Inkerman:
*Pamphlet - Goldfields Historical Museum
*Pamphlet - Historic Dunolly - Victoria's Best Kept Secret
*Map of Gold Workings at Dunolly Area - showing where the main gold rushes occurred
*Brief History - Inglewood
*Directory - Inglewood - Name Occupation, Dwelling
*Directory - Name / Ocupation / Dwelling
Linton / Happy Valley / Piggoreet:
*Directory - Lintons
*"A History of the Shire and the Township of Heathcote" by J.O. Randell
*Official Post Office Directory 1869 - Name / Occupation/ Address
*Brief History Part 1
*Brief History Part 2
*Post Office Directory
*List - Alphabetical Order by Names plus Business and Trade (Tarrangower Times Oct/1858)
*List - Alphabetical Order by Trade plus Name and Business
*Directory - Name / Occupation / Dwelling
*Worsley Cottage - built by Arthur Worsley, a contractor in stonework in 1894
[.11] Resource No. 4 Blue Display Book titled Towns 4 Moliagul to Stawell
*Moligul Legislative Assembly (Voting?) List - Names and Occupations
*Moliagul Victorian Post Office Directory 1868 - Name / Ocupation / Address / Comments
*"The Welcome Stranger" gold nugget
*The Sunday School
*The Welcome Stranger Discovery Walk - information and map
Moonambel (Mountain Creek) Redbank
*List of names extracted from advertisments of the Pioneer and Mountain Creek Advertiser 16/02/1861.
*Bailliere's Directory 1869 - Alphabetical List of Name / Occupation / Place
*Directory 1869 - Alphabetical by Name; plus occupation and address.
Browns and Scarsdale:
*Browns Street Directory - Name and Occupation
*Smythesdale Street Directory -Name and Occupation
Stawell (Pleasant Creek)
*Victorian Official Post Office Directory - Name /Occupation / Dwelling
*Chronology - 1841-1920
*Production of gold statistics - 1879 - 1900
*Extracts from "The Golden Years of Stawell". Chapt 1 - Stawell's Coming Out. Capt. 2 - The Gold Rush. Caapt.3 - Cradle of Democracy.
Chapt.4 - The Reefs Becomes Stawell. Chapt. 5 - Rushing In. Chapt.6 - The Pioneers. Chapt 7 - The Decade of Optimism.
[.12] Resource No. 5: Blue Display Book titled 'Towns Steiglitz to the The Golden Triangle.
Victorian Post Office Directory 1869
*Map of Steiglitz
*List of maps relevant to Steiglitz history
*Information 6 tables of data from "Reports of Mining Surveyors
Talbot (Back Creek)
Post office Directory 1869 - Name/Occupation/Street.
Also list in alphabetical order by Occupation
*Chronological Reference to Taradale Mines
*Water - The Coliban System of Waterworks
Tarnagulla (Sandy Creek)
*Tarnagulla Businessmen Cameos to give depth to advertisments in 'The Tarnagulla Courier' various issues 1864-1871
*Directory - Name/Occupation /Address
*List - Name/Business/Trade
*List - Name/Occupation
The Golden Triangle:
*The Early Rushes - Wedderburn / Moliagul / Sandy Creek - Tarnagulla / Jones Creek - Waanyarra / Kingower / Dunolly - Goldsborough / Inglweood
*Census of 1857 - Population / Occupations
*1858-1871 - A Time of Consolidation- Wedderburn / Moliagul / Sandy Creek- Tarnagulla / Arnold
*Census 1871 - Population
*Information gleaned from the census data - Demographics / Population / Occupations / marital / Birthplace / Religion / Literacy/ Occupation and Housing Cameos
*Graphs - Birthplace of settlers /Male-Female Ratio / Married males / Children under 15 as Percentage of Population / Religion
*Census 1857 - Statistical data
[.13] Resource No. 6 - Black Display Book
Information and Research in Central Victoria including:
*Banking - Research from ANZ Bank Archives
*Institutions - also includes articles listed from the Ballarat Times Newspaper
*Australian mining History Association - A.M.H.A. Bibliography
*Australia's Mining History
* Bibliography - Land Surveys Victoria -
*1853 Administration (Statistics and Other) includes:
schools / ministers of religion / police / military / local administration / licences for sale of spirits / distances between various Victorian gold fields.
* Victoria Government Gazette (Copy) - N0. 116, 12/12/1854 includes: Gold Felds Commission of Enquiry & No. 85, 15/09/1854 - Addresses presented to the Lieutenant Governor (Sir Charles Hotham) during his tour through the Gold Fields of Victoria,1854. Addresses on behalf of : the people of Bendigo; Members of the Church of England, Bendigo; Members of the Wesleyan Church on the Bendigo Gold Fields; Bendigo Gold District General Hospital; the Bendigo Prospecting Association; Committee of the Bendigo Local Exhibition; Bendigo District Medical Association; Coloured Americans Resident at Bendigo; German Inhabitants of Bendigo; Landowners, Inhabitants, and Miners of Castlemaine; Inhabitants of Forest Creek; Inhabitants of Heathcote and Gold Miners of McIvor; Residents and landholders of the District of Bacchus Marsh; Inhabitants of Kilmore and Vicinity.
*Gold Fields Correspondence 1853: letter from Lieutenant Colonel Valiant, (Officer commanding the Troops in Victoria) to the Lieutenant Governor re threatened disturbance at Sandhurst (Bendigo) regarding the Gold License Fee.
* Extracts from a book "Victoria" re Gold Fields Commission of Enquiry involving mainly Ballarat and Castlemaine and a chapter titled 'A Tour to the Victorian Gold-Fields'
*Lists of central Victorian newspapers - listed by date published 1851to 1874; by first date available to State Library.
*A list of cities and towns showing County, population in 1861 &1871, and municipal status.
[.14] Resource no.7. Black display book.
*Reference: Papers presented to Parliament Victoria - 1859-1860 4 volumes - relevant sections copied. Contains information on Branches of Government.
General / Finance / Gold / Gazette / Commission and Warrant / Statistic.
*Gold Fields Act. In accordance with the Act the gold fields are divided into six districts - Ballaarat, Castlemaine , Sandhurst, Avoca, Ararat, and Beechworth.. Official staff in each gold district consists of a Resident Warden, Wardens, Wardens' Clerks, Bailiffs, Chinese Protectors, Chinese Interpreters, and Mining Surveyors.
*Police magistrates and Clerks of Petty Sessions, etc.
*Immigration and Emigration Overland - Chinese - 1859
*Population on the Goldfields
*The Geological Survey - The Government Geologist is assisited by staff from four branches - the office Branch; the Publishing Branch; the Field Branch and the Museum Branch.
*Commission to Enquire Into Sludge dated 10/02/1859 (Some sections copied) - Report to the Honorable Chief Commissioner of Public Works, Melbourne re the mode of carrying the sludge from the puddling mills in Sandhurst without interfering with the drainage of the town and the roads in the neighbourhood.
[.15] Resource No.8: Camel display book titled Resource No. 8. Aborigines
*Lists of book titles -
+"Readings in Victorian prehistory"
+"The Aborigines of Port Phillip"
+Aboriginal languages and clans"
+"A History of the Port Phillip District"
+"Langi Ghiran 1: Aboriginal Rock...."
+"Koorie History: sources for aboriginal studies in the State Library of Victoria", ed. Tom Griffiths, Melb. Friends of the State Library, 1989
+"The Public Lands of Australia Felix"; settlement and land appraisal in Victoria1834-91 with special reference to the Western Plains", J.M.Powell, Melb. Oxford
University Press 1970
+*Bibliography of the Victorian Aborigines' from the earliest manuscripts to 31st December 1970, Massoa, Aldo, Melb. Hawthorn Press, 1971
+"Aborigines in Colonial Victoria, 1836-1886", M.F. Christie, Sydney University Press, 1979
+"Urban and Industrial Australia: readings in Human Geography" ed J.M. Powell, Melb. Sorrett Pub. 1974
-Processes of Pioneer Settlement - The Squatting Occupation of Victoria, 1834-60. J.M. Powell
-Areal Variations in the Class Structure of the Central-Place Hierarchy. P. Scott
- Volume1 and Volume 2: Notes Relating to the Habits of the Natives of Other Parts of Australia and Tasmania. Compiled from various sources for the Government
of Victoria by R Brough Smyth. John Curry, O'Neil, Melb. 1st pub. Melb. 1876.
p31-45 - Numbers and Distribution of the Aborigines in Victoria
-Victorian Aborigines 1835-1901 - A Resource Guide to the Holdings of the Public Record Office, Victoria; published by the Government Information Centre 1984.
*History of the Aboriginal Artefacts Displayed in the Daylesford Museum. F. G. Powell (4 page pamphlet)
*Letter to Zelda Martin from Peter Lovett, Cultural Officer, Ballarat & District Aboriginal Co- Operative, 05/02/1997
*Map: Ian Clarke Victorian Tribunal Boundary Map - Clans of Central Victoria.
*Victorian Rock Art and Mythology - Article about Mount Langhi Ghiran and myths of the Tjapwarong people.
*Two Aboriginal myths relating to the Grampians - 'The Monster Emu' / 'The Aquisition of Fire', by the Aborigines in
the Grampians Areas
*Article titled (chapter 8) Ballarat - information re camping sites in the region. Lake Wendouree / Lake Burrumbeet (includes a myth) / Mt Bunninyong / Lal Lal / Pitfield / Mount Elephant / Mount Egerton / Meredith / Lake Goldsmith / Lake Learmonth / Ercildoune
*Notes on the Aborigines of the Wider Ballarat Region plus European names=Aboriginal names. John Morris
*Role of Aborigines in Town Development in Central Victoria. Mentions Native Police Force est. in Port Phillip 1842
and Central Board for Aborigines est. 1860
*The Grave of King Billy. (Frank Wilson) Pamphlet.
*Camping Places in Central and Northern Victoria. Article re Lake Burrumbeet site.
*Programme for the Unveiling of Memorial Cairn for Edward Stone Parker 1802-1865. Note portrait not accurate.
Accurate portrait is available in the book "A Successful Failure A Trilogy The Aborigines and Early Settlers", Edgar
Morrison, Graffiti Publications, 2002.
* Large envelope addressed to Mr G Netherway containing newspaper cuttings regarding the life of Edward Stone
Parker, the unveiling of the Memorial Cairn as mentioned above, articles titled 'Episodes from Our Early Days'
(Edgar Morrison, Yandoit)- The Black's School, A School At Last and The Final years. Also a typed page titled 'Historical Background to E.S.Parker's Career. Includes an interesting tale titled 'When the cat lay doggo' re laying power leads for the unveiling ceremony at the memorial site.
[.16] green display folder titled 'Research Aids'
*List of references to Commissioners' & W'ardens' Reports (formerly held at La Trobe Library Archives, now at Public Records Office [PRO]). Indicates town referred to / date of report / name of camp if different to town.
* Archive information re Anglican Records
*Movement around the Goldfields - Miners and Storekeepers - usefulness of newspapers in providing information
- areas covered - Castlemaine, Maldon, Ararat, Stawell, Tarnagulla, Dunolly.
*Port Phillip /Victoria Directories 1839/1867 - Chronological list of Directories included in this series.
*"Notes on the History of Local Government in Victoria" A.W. Greig Melb. University Press 1925 - Photo-copied
extract p5-p40. (Source - Deakin University Library) - Introduction by W.Harrison Moore. Section 1 - Development
in New South Wales Before Separation. Section 2 - Development in Victoria After Its Separation from New South
Wales. Hand written notations: 'roads, markets, and local government 1855 on' ;'opportunity of squatters in
parliament' and 'opportunities of matters in parliament p33'
* Notes on the Establishment of Surveyor General's Department 1851and Commissioner of Crown Lands and Survey.
* Newspaper articles from The Argus, 1849, re the discovery of gold in the Pyrenees region.
* Excerpt - a report on schools - A.B.Orlebar, Inspector; re the need for permanent school buildings rather than
*Excerpt from - 'Approaches to Urban History', Sean Glynn: The Case for Caution
* Except from - 'The Urban Sprinkle', Weston Bate: Country Towns and Australian Regional History
*Reference- 'The History of Land Tenure in the Colony of Victoria', John Quick. References the Haines Land Bill, land tenure and Land Leagues.
[.17] Light blue envelope folder titled 'Birtchnell's Ballarat, etc. Directory 1862
*Contains various directories for Smythesdale, Buninyong, Clunes, Brown's and Creswick.
[.18] Red envelope folder no.2 titled Victorian Gazetteer
*Selected pages from 1869 Victorian Gazetteer on A4 paper (with a handwritten note questioning if some pages are from 1868 Victorian Gazetteer as appears to be different sizes - A3 pages.) Information includes locations and descriptions of towns, hotels, banks, communications and populations. (Does not include names, residences and occupations)
[.19] Red Envelope folder titled Bailliere's Official Post Office Directory 1868 (or1869 or a mixture of both?)
*Contains a selection of pages of towns highlighted in yellow in the the index
*Work on this directory was commenced in 1867.
*Information includes: Municipalities - mayors and councilors; lists of towns naming male inhabitants and their occupations.
[.20]Yellow manila folder titled Post Grad Seminar Presentation 1996
*Gives some background to Zelda Martin's proposed thesis and why she chose the topic Gold Mining Towns Boom or Bust
[.21] A3 display book - No. 1A
* A list of 'Relevant Newspapers collected:
The Tarrangower Times and Maldon Advertiser (first published 1858) Includes dates 1858-1867.
The Mount Alexander Mail. Includes dates 1854-1866
The Tarnagulla Courier. Includes dates from1864-1871
Dunolly and Burnt Creek Express. Includes dates from 1862-1871
* Selection of newspaper pages from The Mount Alexander Mail 1854 to 1856, mostly showing advertisements for businesses and services provided to that community.
[.22] A3 display book - No. 1B
* Selection of newspaper pages from The Mount Alexander Mail 1857 to 1866, mostly showing advertisements for businesses and services provided to that community.
[.23] A3 display book -No. 2
* Selection of newspaper pages from The Tarnagulla Courier 1864 to 1871, mostly showing advertisements for businesses and services provided to that community.
[.24] A3 display book - No. 3
*Selection of newspaper pages from The Tarrangower Times (and Maldon and Newstead) Advertiser 1858 to1867, mostly showing advertisements for businesses and services provided to
[.25] A3 display book - No.4
* Selection of newspaper pages from The Dunolly and Burnt Creek Express; and The Dunolly and Betbetshire Express 1862 to 1871, mostly showing advertisements for businesses and services provided for that community.
[.26] A3 display book - No.5
* Bryce Ross's Diggings Directory. Includes instructions for using this directory. This directory was used by "all persons having connexion or desiring to communicate with 'working parties, private friends, or Stores at the Diggings." As a directory for each area wwas completed it was published in each month's issue of Bonwick's "Digger's Magazine." Years c1852/1853.
This Directory commences first at the head of Forest Creek. Includes a directory for Bendigo and Ballarat.
Of interest at the end of the Bendigo and Ballarat directory is a list of the number of storekeepers, butchers, doctors, smiths, eating houses, lemonade sellers and chapels.
* The Castlemaine Directory and Book of General Information Comprehending Glass's Model Calendar for the Two Years 1862 and1863.
"zelda martin, victorian goldfield towns, bendigo, castlemaine, ballarat, maldon, stawell, ararat, maryborough, creswick, avoca, heathcote, banks, bank of australasia, union bank of australia, government camp, sandhurst, water supply, tarnagulla, talbot, back creek, mountain creek, police court, carisbrook, dunolly, thompson's foundry, charles clacy, anthony trollope, robert cecil, mount alexander, urbanisation, national schools, education, govenrment, industry, railway, transport, settlement, land settlement in central victoria, steiglitz, joseph brady, the new australian mine, berry deep leads, william guthrie spence, creswick state forest, arthur worsley, worsley cottage, the welcome stranger, moliagul, moonambel, redbank, st arnaud, sebastapol, brown's, scarsdale, clunes, chewton, daylesford, bushfires, inkerman, inglewood, kingower, lintons, happy valley, piggoreet, mcivor, majorca, tarrangower, taradale, the coliban system, the syphon, sandy creek, wedderburn, koorong, arnold, jones creek, waanyarra, the golden triangle, census 1857, blackwood, buninyong, durham lead, magpie, carngham, snake valley, alma, amherst, daisy hill, amphitheatre, mountain hut, beaufort, fiery creek, counties, population, gold fields commission of enquiry1854, william westgarth, gold license fee, lieutenant colonel valiant, administration of the victorian gold fields, commission to enquire into sludge 1859, e.s. parker, edward stone parker, edgar morrison, mount franklin protectorate, dja dja wurrung, memorial cairn, franklinford, mt franklin memorial cairn, jajowurrong, dja dja wurung, tjaowarong, wothowurong, assistant protectors, daylesford museum, buluk, rock art - grampians, aboriginal mythology - grampians, aborigines, first nations people, mount franklin, aboriginal artifacts, lake burrumbeet, native police force, central board of aborigines, yandoit, commissioners' reports, wardens' reports, port phillip/victoria directories 1839-1867, local government - victoria 1853/1854, surveyor general's department - 1850's, victorian schools 1850's, a.b.orlebar, haines land bill, william charles haines, wilson gray, land tenure, land leagues, victorian gazetteer, the tarrangower times and maldon advertiser - 1858-1867, the mount alexander mail 1854-1866, the tarnagulla courier 1864, dunolly and burnt creek express 1862-1871, bryce rose's diggings directory, the castlemaine directory 1862-1863