Peter Lalor was the leader of the Eureka Stockade Rebels, 1854
Colour photograph of the Peter Lalor statue in Ballarat's Sturt Street Gardens.
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Peter Lalor was the leader of the Eureka Stockade Rebels, 1854
Colour photograph of the Peter Lalor statue in Ballarat's Sturt Street Gardens.
The Hon. Mark Birrell, MP, Minister for Industry, Science and Technology was involved with the Ground breaking ceremony held on Friday 13 September 1996 at 12.40pm.
Cream coloured invitation to to the ground breaking ceremony for the proposed Greenhill Enterprise Centre at the Ballarat Technology Park.
ballarat technology park, mark birrell, greenhill enterprise centre
Before 1941 "Hillside", McCartney's Road was associated with the Carroll Family. Patrick Edmund Carroll, his wife Mary Matilda Fitzgerald, and children Kathleen, Ronald and Rosemary were the last members of the family to live at and work "Hillside". Stanislaus Kelly and his wife Margaret (nee Gorman) bought the farm from the Carroll family. The couple raised six children on the land: May, Mary, Leo, Ray (Lofty), Daniel (Tich) and Bernadette. The family grew spuds and onions on the hill and milked cows, with the little dairy located on the eastern side of the house. (information from Mary Kelly)
Colour digital photographs of Crossley, Victoria, near McCartney's Lane. The house depicted is "Hillside" in McCartney's Lane. The views towards an extinct volcano is Tower Hill.
crossley, hillside, carroll, tower hill, mccartney's lane
Thomas Moore (28 May 1779 – 25 February 1852) was an Irish poet, singer, songwriter, and entertainer, now best remembered for the lyrics of "The Minstrel Boy" and "The Last Rose of Summer". (Wikipedia, accessed 05 April 2014)
A coloured photograph of the Thomas Moore Statue in Sturt Street Ballarat.
ballarat, moore, thomas moore, poet, statue, sturt street, surt street gardens
St Patrick's Catholic Church Elaine closed in 2013. Originally known as "Stony Rises" Elaine could once claim the largest Catholic church congregation in the Meredith parish, due to the extensive mining activity in the area. At the time the population of the district supported three hotels and 4 churches and the town was served by a water supply from a reservoir at Lal Lal. Elaine in common with other rural communities has lost many of the services that were once available, but it still retains a well maintained Catholic church and Public Hall as well as a Hotel, Post Office, General Store and Service Station. (http://www.parishofmeredith.org.au/elaine_h.html, accessed 04/03/2014) The St Patrick‘s Church at Elaine was opened on Sunday 28th, November, 1909 and a report appeared in the Advocate on December 4th, 1909. "On Sunday last the Very Rev.Dean Phelan, V.G., blessed a new church at Elaine, in the parish of Meredith. The church, which was built by a local firm, Messrs. Smith Bros, is a weather-board building on brick foundations, and gives a clear seating accommodation of 50 feet by 25 feet, independent of sanctuary, sacristy, and porch. After the ceremony, which commenced at 11 o‘clock, the pastor of the parish, Rev.M.Murphy, celebrated Mass, and the choir from St.Joseph‘s, Meredith, sang in a highly creditable manner portions of Weber‘s Mass, also a hymn to St.Patrick, under whose patronage the church is placed. The financial statement made by Fr.Murphy showed that the entire cost of the building, alter, seats, etc, was $1103.10; that $620 had been subscribed previous to the opening, and over $140 received on Sunday, including $20 from his Grace the Archbishop, and $10 each from the Dean and Fr.Murphy. After Communion the Very Rev.Dean Phelan preached on the necessity of a church as a dwelling place for God in His Eucharist Presence. Taking for his text, “Behold the tabernacle of God with men: He shall dwell with them, and they shall be His people; and He Himself with them shall be their God.” In doing this work, I am pleased to learn that you have not only received material assistance from some who do not kneel at this altar, but that the authorities of the Presbyterian Church have given you their organ for the Mass today. This generous action deserves our special thanks and is in striking contrast with the anti-Catholic prejudice shown in other quarters. It reminds me of the action of Hiram, King of Tyre, when he heard that Solomon was about to build a house to the God of Israel. Not only did he offer cedar-trees from Libanus, but skilled men to carve the wood, and sent his trained sailors to assist in bringing from the mines of Ophir four hundred and twenty talents of gold for internal decoration. May that spirit of Christian charity ever dwell in your midst! (http://www.parishofmeredith.org.au/elaine_h.html, accessed 04/03/2014) The stained glass window of St Patrick was consecrated in 1928. According to The Geelong Advertiser on 25 July 1928: One of the largest congregations that has ever been in St.Patrick‘s Church attended on Sunday last, the occasion being the consecration of a memorial window to the memory of James Connell, who died in his 25th year in February last. Deceased was the youngest son of Mr. and Mrs. John Connell, respected residents of Elaine. He was loved and respected by all sections of the community, and was closely connected with all sporting bodies. Friends of the deceased and the family were present from Ararat, Stawell, Ballarat, Melbourne, Geelong and all the surrounding districts, also members of other denominations. A few noticed were Cr.C.C.Austin, Mr.H.Young, Mrs.A.Bowers, Mrs.Gray, Mr.and Mrs.R.Norgate and others. The stained window was made by Brookes Robinson in Melbourne, bearing the image of St.Patrick and the inscription thereon “To the undying memory of James Connell, who died 3.2.28 R.I.P.” The beautiful window was kindly placed in position by Mr.Bill Smith, Meredith. High Mass with full ceremonies was offered by Rev.Fr.F.Conlon,P.P., Meredith, with six alter attendants from St.Josephs School, Meredith. The Meredith choir, with Mrs.R.Grant organist, assisted by Miss K.Johnson (violin) rendered beautiful music, the principal parts of the singing being capably handled by Mrs.Thos Brady, Father Conlon took as his text, “Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord. From henceforth now, said the spirit, that they may rest from their labors, for their works follow them.” With well chosen remarks Fr.Conlon touched feelingly on the many qualities of the late member. First as a good son; secondly as a good citizen and sportsman; thirdly as a good child of the church. The choir conducted an impressive ceremony with “Nearer my God to Thee.” (http://www.parishofmeredith.org.au/elaine_h.html, accessed 04/03/2014)
Five colour photographs of St Patrick's Elaine
elaine, st patrick, st patrick's elaine, . catholic, stained glass, james connell, james joseph connell
St Mary's Clarendon was dedicated on 09 November 1871. In 2014 it is part of St Alipius Parish, Ballarat East. "OPENING OF THE NEW CHURCH AT CLARENDON. On Thursday, November 9th, his Lordship the Bishop, accompanied by the various clergymen who assisted at the Mission, left Ballarat early in the morning, and proceeded through Buninyong to open the new church recently erected by the untiring exertions and liberality of the Catholics of Clarendon, and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin under the title of 'Auxilium Christianorum.' The church, which is composed of stone, with Lal Lal white brick facings, is 43 feet long by 20 feet wide, including a nice chancel, and has cost up to the present about £500. As the Bishop was approaching the locality, a large number of horsemen met and escorted, him to the church, arriving at 11 o'clock. Here also were a large number of children, 192, prepared for Confirmation, who were similarly attired as candidates in Ballarat. A procession, headed by the cross bearer and acolytes, was formed of the children and moved round the church, followed by the clergymen and the Bishop, who sprinkled the edifice with holy water. The building having been blessed and consecrated, High Mass, coram episcopo, was celebrated by the Very Rev. Dean Moore, the Rev. T. O'Donnell acting as deacon, Rev. M. J. Shanahan, as sub-deacon, and Rev. J. D. O' Sullivan, as master of ceremonies. After the Communion the Rev. J. D. O'Sullivan preached an impressive sermon on devotion to the Blessed Virgin. The collection amounted to about £40.9." (freeman's Journal, 25 November 1871)
Six colour photographs of exterior and interior views of St Mary's Clarendon.
st mary's clarendon, clarendon, st mary's, catholic
John McMahon was born in County Clare, Ireland
Photograph of a white marble headstone in the Eganstown Catholic Cemetery. The headstone features a Harp of Erin. The headstone if for John McMahon and his family.
ballarat irish, mcmahon, eganstown, cemetery, harp of erin
Detail of of St Patrick Statue from the Infant Jesus Church, Koroit.
ballarat irish, st patcick, koroit, statue, infant jesus koroit
Koroit has a rich history or Irish immigration which is still evident in the town.
Image of an Irish Leprachaun from a sign in the Koroit in December 2013
ballarat irish, leprachaun, koroit
Port Fairy is one of the earliest pioneered areas in Victoria.Whaling and sealing were the primary industries in the early years and some of the 19th century architecture remains. In 2012 the seaside town of Port Fairy was voted the world's most liveable town with a population of less than 20,000 at the 2012 LivCom International Awards.
Digital photograph of shamrocks carved in marble from a headstone in the Port Fairy Cemetery
ballarat irish, shamrock, shamrocks, headstone, cemetery, carving, port fairy
Photograph of a broken Ballaarat Old Cemetery marble Headstone for Catherine Hanley, native of Tipperary, Ireland. She died on 16 July 1870. Also her sister, Margaret Robertson who died on 04 April 1886 aged 45, and their mother Margaret Hanley who died on 06 May 1889 aged 70 years.
ballarat irish, ballaarat old cemetery, headstone, hanley, catherine hanley, margaret hanley, margaret robertson, robertson
Digital photograph of a Ballaarat Old Cemetery Headstone for James Noonan and Mary Noonan. Mary Noonan was from Spencil Hill, County Clare, Ireland. SHe died on 06 March 1883 aged 39. James Noonan died in July 1889.
ballarat irish, ballaarat old cemetery, headstone, noonan, james noonan, mary noonan, spencil hill
Photograph of the Ballarat Old Cemeteryheadstone of Mary Roberts and her brother John Commons. John Common was from Tipperary, Ireland. He died on 08 June 1858 aged 26 years. Also his sister Ann who died 21 November 1863 aged 35. Mary Roberts died 07 October 1866 aged 42 years.
ballarat irish, ballaarat old cemetery, headstone, roberts, commons, mary roberts, john commons, ann commons
Winter was Treasurer of the Irish National League. "AUSTRALIAN AID TO IRELAND. - GRATEFUL ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. The following letters have been received:— "The Irish National League, "43 O'Connell-street Upper, "Dublin, 14th Oct., 1886. "My Dear Mr. 'Winter, — I beg to acknowledge receipt of your favour of the 16th August, enclosing; draft for £250 from the Irish National League of Australasia towards the Irish Parliamentary Fund. The treasurers of the fund, to whom I have handed the draft, are transmitting by this mail a formal receipt for the amount of your generous contribution. ' I am very happy to learn from reports which have appeared in our newspapers here within the past few days that the vacancy in Melbourne has been accepted by our worthy, able, and patriotic prelate, the Most. Rev. Dr. Carr, Bishop of Galway. While the Catholic people of the diocese of Melbourne will find in Dr. Carr an able, zealous, and dignified prelate; of whom they will haye every rea son to be proud, the Irish Catholics of the diocese will, in an especial sense, find in him one who knows the wants of their country, who is deeply in sympathy with .the just feelings and aspirations of her people, and who is second to none in his desire to see his native land happy and prosperous I thought our friends in the Federal Council of the League would be anxious to know what man ner of man the new prelate is, and, therefore, writing to you so soon after his appointment I think it my duty to say so much. "Assuring our friends of our warm gratitude for the generous assistance they are continually giving us in the struggle in which we are en gaged — I remain, my dear Mr. Winter, yours sincerely, T. Harrington. "Joseph Winter, Esq., Advocate office, Melbourne," ''The Irish National League, 43 O'Connell-street Upper, " Dublin; 12th October, 1886. 'My Dear Sir, — I beg to acknowledge with thanks receipt of your letter of 16th August, with 'draft for' £250 from the Federal Council of the Irish National League of Australasia to the Parli mentary Fund. Joseph G. Biggar. ' 'J. Winter, Esq.' ' ; IRISH PARLIAMENTARY ELECTION FUND. The following acknowledgment has been received by the Rev. J. H. O'Connell, Victoria : — " The Irish National League, 45 O'Connell-street Upper, Dublin, 12th October, 1886. '"Rev. Dear Sir, — I beg to acknowledge with best thanks receipt of your letter of 24th August, with draft for £1000 towards the Irish Parliamentary Fund from the Executive Committee of the Irish Parliamentary Fund of Melbourne.— Yours faithfully, "Joseph G. Biggar. "Rev. J. H. O'Connell, St. George's Presbytery, Carlton, Melbourne." (Sydney Freeman's Journey, 4 December 1886) MR JOSEPH WINTER AND THE IRISH NATIONAL LEAGUE - Mr Joseph Winter, of Melbourne, has received a courteous letter from Mr. Harrington, M.P., enclosing the following official document : — ' On the motion of the Right Hon. the Lord Mayor, T. Sexton, M.P., seconded by Dr. B. J. Kenny, M.P., the following resolution was unani mously adopted by the Organizing Committee of the Irish National League :— 'That we have heard with regret of the proposed retirement from the treasurership of the Irish National League of Australia of Mr. Joseph Winter, manager of the Melbourne Advocate, and we seize this opportunity of placing on record our appreciation of tbe signal services which he has rendered to the Irish people by his unselfish and devoted advocacy of their cause, especially during the past eight years, during which time the sum of £27,487 has reached the home move ment through his hands. We desire to assure Mr. Winter that his services will not be forgotten by his countrymen in Ireland, and we venture to express the hope that the Irishmen of Australasia may still be permitted to command them.'(Sydney Freeman's Journal, 6 April 1889)
Image of a moustached man known as Joseph Winter.
ballarat irish, winter, bishop carr, carr, joseph winter, irish national league
Image of a moustached man known as Maurice F. Wilhere.
ballarat irish, wilhere, maurice wilhere
Image of a bearded man known as Thomas H. Walsh.
ballarat irish, walsh, thomas walsh, tom walsh
A British statesman and author. In a ministerial career stretching almost 30 years, he was twice Secretary of State for Scotland under William Ewart Gladstone and the Earl of Rosebery. He broke with Gladstone over the 1886 Irish Home Rule Bill, but after modifications were made to the bill he re-joined the Liberal Party shortly afterwards. Also a writer and historian, Trevelyan published The Life and Letters of Lord Macaulay, his maternal uncle, in 1876. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir_George_Trevelyan,_2nd_Baronet)
Image of George Otto Tavelyon.
ballarat irish, tavelyon, george tavelyon, macauey, irish home rule
Image of a bearded man known as John P. Sutton.
ballarat irish, sutton, john sutton
John Poyntz Spencer, 5th Earl Spencer, KG, PC (27 October 1835 – 13 August 1910), known as Viscount Althorp from 1845 to 1857 (and also known as the Red Earl because of his distinctive long red beard), was a British Liberal Party politician under, and close friend of, British prime minister William Ewart Gladstone. He was twice Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. (Wikipedia) John Poyntz Spencer, 5th Earl Spencer, KG, PC (27 October 1835 – 13 August 1910), known as Viscount Althorp from 1845 to 1857 (and also known as the Red Earl because of his distinctive long red beard), was a British Liberal Party politician under, and close friend of, British prime minister William Ewart Gladstone. He was twice Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. (Wikipedia)
Image of a bearded man known as Lord John Poyntz Spencer.
ballarat irish, spencer, red earl, john spencer
Michael J. Ryan, of Philadelphia who was president of the United Irish League. (http://www.amazon.com/Photo-Michael-President-United-Representative/dp/B00B5MCPO6)
Portrait of M.J. Ryan
ballarat irish, ryan, michael ryan, united irish league
Ryan was an Irish politician. He was elected to the First Dáil at the 1918 general election and, apart from the Third Dáil (1922–1923), held his seat for Wexford until his retirement at the 1965 general election. During his long career he served as Minister for Agriculture (1932–1947), Minister for Health and Social Welfare (1947–1948 and 1951–1954) and Minister for Finance (1957–1965). (Wikipedia) While studying at university in 1913 Ryan became a founder-member of the Irish Volunteers and was sworn into the Irish Republican Brotherhood the following year. During the Easter Rising in 1916 Ryan was the medical officer in the General Post Office (GPO). He was, along with James Connolly, one of the last people to leave the GPO when the evacuation took place. Following the surrender of the patriots Ryan was deported to Stafford Jail in England and subsequently at Frongoch. He was released in August 1916. Ryan rejoined the Volunteers immediately after his release from prison, and in June 1917 he was elected Commandant of the Wexford Battalion. His political career began the following year when he was elected as a Sinn Féin candidate for the constituency of Wexford South in the 1918 general election. Like his fellow Sinn Féin MPs Ryan refused to attend the Westminster Parliament. Instead he attended the proceedings of the First Dáil on 21 January 1919. As the War of Independence went on Ryan became Brigade Commandant of South Wexford and was also elected to Wexford County Council, serving as chairman on one occasion. In September 1919 he was arrested by the British and interned on Spike Island and later Beare Island until he was released after the truce with the other TDs to attend the deliberations of the Dáil concerning the Anglo-Irish Treaty which he voted against. Ryan was later imprisoned again during the subsequent Civil War, however, while interned he won back his Dáil seat as an abstentionist Sinn Féin TD at the 1923 general election. (Wikipedia)
Image of a bearded man known as James Ryan.
5 people sit around a table. Two drink to His Honor's heath.
ballarat irish, rent day, coercion
Protection of Person and Property Act 1881 The ''Protection of Person and Property Act 1881'' was one of more than 100 Coercion Acts passed by the Parliament of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland between 1801 and 1922, in an attempt to establish law and order in Ireland. The 1881 Act was passed by parliament and introduced by Gladstone. It allowed for persons to be imprisoned without trial. On 13 October 1881, the Act was used to arrest Charles Parnell after his newspaper, the ''United Ireland'', had attacked the Land Act. On Gladstone's return to office in 1880, William Edward Forster was made Chief Secretary for Ireland. He carried the Compensation for Disturbance Bill through the Commons, only to see it thrown out in the Lords. On 24 January 1881, he introduced a new Coercion Bill in the House of Commons, to deal with the growth of the Irish National Land League. Despite a 41-hour long fillibuster in the House by the Irish Parliamentary Party, the bill passed, among its provisions being one enabling the British government in Ireland to arrest without trial persons "reasonably suspected" of crime and conspiracy. However those arrested were often not always suspect, only supportive of the Irish National Land League's movements. Over 100 such acts were passed, some of the more notable of which were "An Act for the more effectual Suppression of Local Disturbances and Dangerous Associations in Ireland", "The Protection of Life and Property in Certain Parts of Ireland Act", and the "Protection of Person and Property Act 1881". An Irish Coercion Bill was proposed by Sir Robert Peel to calm the increasing difficult situation in Ireland as a result of the Great Famine 1844–47. The Bill was blocked and this led, in part, to Peel's retirement as Prime Minister. Later attempts to introduce Irish coercion acts were blocked by the filibustering of Joseph Biggar. As a response to the Plan of Campaign of the mid-1880s the new Chief Secretary for Ireland Arthur Balfour secured a tough Perpetual Crimes Act (1887) (or Coercion Act) aimed at the prevention of boycotting, intimidation, unlawful assembly and the organisation of conspiracies against the payment of agreed rents. The Act resulted in the imprisonment of hundreds of people including over twenty MPs. The so-called ''Crimes Act'' (or "Coercion" Act) was condemned by the Catholic hierarchy since it was to become a permanent part of the law and did not have to be renewed annually by parliament, but the Papacy issued the bull Link: "Saepe Nos" in 1888 which was uncritical of the Acts. Trial by jury was abolished. An influential analysis of the pros and cons of the Act was published in 1888 by W. H. Hurlbert, a Catholic Irish-American author. Many hundreds were imprisoned at times under the Acts, including many prominent politicians and agrarian agitators, Joseph Biggar, Alexander Blane, Michael Davitt, John Dillon, James Gilhooly, Patrick Guiney, Matthew Harris, John Hayden, J. E. Kenny, Andrew Kettle, Denis Kilbride, Pat O'Brien, William O'Brien, James O'Kelly, Charles Stewart Parnell, Douglas Pyne, Willie Redmond, Timothy Sullivan. [http://shelf3d.com/i/Irish%20Coercion%20Act, accessed 13/12/2013]
A many sits on a table holding the lapels of his Jacket.
ballarat irish, cabin, rent, tenants, quill, biggar, davitt
John Edward Redmond, was a prominent banker and businessman before entering Parliament as a member for Wexford constituency in 1859; his statue stands in Redmond Square, Wexford town.(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Redmond, accessed 21/01/2014) His great nephew, John Edward Redmond (1 September 1856 – 6 March 1918) was an Irish nationalist politician, barrister, MP in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party from 1900 to 1918. He was a moderate, constitutional and conciliatory politician who attained the twin dominant objectives of his political life, party unity and finally in September 1914 achieving the promise of Irish Home Rule under an Act which granted an interim form of self-government to Ireland. However, implementation of the Act was suspended by the intervention of World War I, and ultimately made untenable after the Conscription Crisis of 1918. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Redmond, accessed 21/01/2014)
Image of moustached politician John E. Redmond.
ballarat irish, redmond, john redmond, irish nationalist party, irish home rule
Parnell was an Irish nationalist and statesman who led the fight for Irish Home Rule in the 1880s. Charles Stewart Parnell was born on 27 June 1846 in County Wicklow into a family of Anglo-Irish Protestant landowners. He studied at Cambridge University and was elected to parliament in 1875 as a member of the Home Rule League (later re-named by Parnell the Irish Parliamentary Party). His abilities soon became evident. In 1878, Parnell became an active opponent of the Irish land laws, believing their reform should be the first step on the road to Home Rule. In 1879, Parnell was elected president of the newly founded National Land League and the following year he visited the United States to gain both funds and support for land reform. In the 1880 election, he supported the Liberal leader William Gladstone, but when Gladstone's Land Act of 1881 fell short of expectations, he joined the opposition. By now he had become the accepted leader of the Irish nationalist movement. Parnell now encouraged boycott as a means of influencing landlords and land agents, and as a result he was sent to jail and the Land League was suppressed. From Kilmainham prison he called on Irish peasants to stop paying rent. In March 1882, he negotiated an agreement with Gladstone - the Kilmainham Treaty - in which he urged his followers to avoid violence. But this peaceful policy was severely challenged by the murder in May 1882 of two senior British officials in Phoenix Park in Dublin by members of an Irish terrorist group. Parnell condemned the murders. In 1886, Parnell joined with the Liberals to defeat Lord Salisbury's Conservative government. Gladstone became prime minister and introduced the first Irish Home Rule Bill. Parnell believed it was flawed but said he was prepared to vote for it. The Bill split the Liberal Party and was defeated in the House of Commons. Gladstone's government fell soon afterwards.(http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/parnell_charles.shtml, accessed 21 January 2014) The Irish National Land League (Irish: Conradh na Talún) was an Irish political organisation of the late 19th century which sought to help poor tenant farmers. Its primary aim was to abolish landlordism in Ireland and enable tenant farmers to own the land they worked on. The period of the Land League's agitation is known as the Land War. Within decades of the league's foundation, through the efforts of William O'Brien and George Wyndham (a descendant of Lord Edward FitzGerald), the 1902 Land Conference produced the Land (Purchase) Act 1903 which allowed Irish tenant farmers buy out their freeholds with UK government loans over 68 years through the Land Commission (an arrangement that has never been possible in Britain itself). For agricultural labourers, D.D. Sheehan and the Irish Land and Labour Association secured their demands from the Liberal government elected in 1905 to pass the Labourers (Ireland) Act 1906, and the Labourers (Ireland) Act 1911, which paid County Councils to build over 40,000 new rural cottages, each on an acre of land. By 1914, 75% of occupiers were buying out their landlords, mostly under the two Acts. In all, under the pre-UK Land Acts over 316,000 tenants purchased their holdings amounting to 15 million acres (61,000 km2) out of a total of 20 million acres (81,000 km2) in the country. Sometimes the holdings were described as "uneconomic", but the overall sense of social justice was undeniable. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_National_Land_League, accessed 21 January 2014) The Irish National Land League was founded at the Imperial Hotel in Castlebar, the County town of Mayo, on 21 October 1879. At that meeting Charles Stewart Parnell was elected president of the league. Andrew Kettle, Michael Davitt, and Thomas Brennan were appointed as honorary secretaries. This united practically all the different strands of land agitation and tenant rights movements under a single organisation. The two aims of the Land League, as stated in the resolutions adopted in the meeting, were: ...first, to bring out a reduction of rack-rents; second, to facilitate the obtaining of the ownership of the soil by the occupiers. That the object of the League can be best attained by promoting organisation among the tenant-farmers; by defending those who may be threatened with eviction for refusing to pay unjust rents; by facilitating the working of the Bright clauses of the Irish Land Act during the winter; and by obtaining such reforms in the laws relating to land as will enable every tenant to become owner of his holding by paying a fair rent for a limited number of years. Charles Stewart Parnell, John Dillon, Michael Davitt, and others including Cal Lynn then went to America to raise funds for the League with spectacular results. Branches were also set up in Scotland, where the Crofters Party imitated the League and secured a reforming Act in 1886. The government had introduced the first ineffective Land Act in 1870, then the equally inadequate Acts of 1880 and 1881 followed. These established a Land Commission that started to reduce some rents. Parnell together with all of his party lieutenants, including Father Eugene Sheehy known as "the Land League priest", went into a bitter verbal offensive and were imprisoned in October 1881 under the Irish Coercion Act in Kilmainham Jail for "sabotaging the Land Act", from where the No-Rent Manifesto was issued, calling for a national tenant farmer rent strike which was partially followed. Although the League discouraged violence, agrarian crimes increased widely. Typically a rent strike would be followed by evictions by the police, or those tenants paying rent would be subject to a local boycott by League members. Where cases went to court, witnesses would change their stories, resulting in an unworkable legal system. This in turn led on to stronger criminal laws being passed that were described by the League as "Coercion Acts". The bitterness that developed helped Parnell later in his Home Rule campaign. Davitt's views were much more extreme, seeking to nationalise all land, as seen in his famous slogan: "The land of Ireland for the people of Ireland". Parnell aimed to harness the emotive element, but he and his party preferred for tenant farmers to become freeholders on the land they rented, instead of land being vested in "the people".(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_National_Land_League, accessed 21 January 2014)
Image of bearded man known as Charles Stewart Parnell
ballarat irish, parnell, charles parnell, home rule
Victorian Collections acknowledges the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples as the first inhabitants of the nation and the traditional custodians of the lands where we live, learn and work.