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Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village Warrnambool, Victoria

The Shipwreck Coast of Victoria has a rich maritime history. The spectacular coastline is the final resting place of over 180 wrecks along our beautiful and wild coastline.

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village is both a museum with Australia's richest shipwreck collection and an 1870's village located on the state heritage listed and still operating Lady Bay Lighthouse precinct. The village provide a glimpse into the maritime lifestyles and trades of the 1870's era, the peak of Australia's maritime heritage.

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Contact Information

location
89 Merri St Warrnambool Victoria 3280 (map)
phone
+61 03 5559 4600

Contact

Opening Hours

9am - Late Daily 7 Day per Week

Entry Fee

By Day - Museum: $18.00 adult, $14.50 concession, $8.50 child, $48.00 family. By Night - Shipwrecked Sound and Laser Experience: Adults $30, Concession $27, Child $15.95, Family $77

Location

89 Merri Street Warrnambool Victoria

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Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village collection holds over 10,000 items.

Our focus is centered around early Victorian shipwreck and settlement artefacts from 1850 - 1940.

Our most significant item is the Loch Ard Peacock which is a minton earthernware majolica glazed peacock that survived the shipwreck of the Loch Ard. Other items of interest in our collection include the Carmichael Watch, the ships bells from numerous Shipwrecks, cannons and the Schomberg Diamond Ring.

Ongoing work continues to better understand our collection and we welcome comments you may have on any items you see. We are not experts and will value your contribution.

PLEASE NOTE WE ARE NOT A VALUATION SERVICE AND WILL NOT BE ABLE TO ADVISE YOU OF ANY VALUES ON YOUR ITEMS.

Significance

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village's collection of items is significant as it is the largest collection of shipwreck artefacts to be held in Victoria. The value of the collection is also important due to the provenance of many of the items, their social significance as well as their rarity.

Cr Jacinta Ermacora, Mayor of Warrnambool 24 July 2011 2:57 PM

Thanks Peter, The Victorian Community Collections Project is a ground breaking project and will prove invaluable for heritage preservation on behalf of our community here in Warrnambool. Please pass on my appreciation to the volunteers and staff involved in the project

Peter Abbott 31 January 2013 11:54 PM

Great archive of items. Well done to volunteers who have developed this rich collection and ways to view it. Can not wait to see more.

Margaret 14 October 2013 9:27 AM

Is it me? Finding a lot of the photographs are not coming up on view. Are there gremlins in the system or?? Great idea - will check back again.

Helen Sheedy 17 October 2013 3:35 PM

Thanks for your comment Margaret. yes there are a number of photos that did not load in the mass upload computer. Our volunteer team is busily working away to get as many of these online at the moment. As you can imagine it is an enormous task checking through all 7000 items. If there is an item in particular you would like to view let me know and I can alert the team to ensure the photo is loaded asap.

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34 items with documents

34 items

Certificate

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Certificate, admission of W.R. Angus to Australian College of Ophthalmologists, June 1st 1969. From the W.R. Angus Collection. Heavy weight, off white paper with black print.

Historical information

This certificate belonging to Dr. W.R. Angus formalises his admission to the Australian College of Ophthalmologists, June 1st 1969. The certificate was donated to Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village by the family of Doctor William Roy Angus, Surgeon and Oculist. It is part of the “W.R. Angus Collection” that includes historical medical equipment, surgical instruments and material once belonging to Dr Edward Ryan and Dr Thomas Francis Ryan, (both of Nhill, Victoria) as well as Dr Angus’ own belongings. The Collection’s history spans the medical practices of the two Doctors Ryan, from 1885-1926 plus that of Dr Angus, up until 1969. ABOUT THE “W.R.ANGUS COLLECTION” Doctor William Roy Angus M.B., B.S., Adel., 1923, F.R.C.S. Edin.,1928 (also known as Dr Roy Angus) was born in Murrumbeena, Victoria in 1901 and lived until 1970. He qualified as a doctor in 1923 at University of Adelaide, was Resident Medical Officer at the Royal Adelaide Hospital in 1924 and for a period was house surgeon to Sir (then Mr.) Henry Simpson Newland. Dr Angus was briefly an Assistant to Dr Riddell of Kapunda, then commenced private practice at Curramulka, Yorke Peninsula, SA, where he was physician, surgeon and chemist. In 1926, he was appointed as new Medical Assistant to Dr Thomas Francis Ryan (T.F. Ryan, or Tom), in Nhill, Victoria, where his experiences included radiology and pharmacy. In 1927 he was Acting House Surgeon in Dr Tom Ryan’s absence. Dr Angus had become engaged to Gladys Forsyth and they decided he would take time to further his studies overseas in the UK in 1927. He studied at London University College Hospital and at Edinburgh Royal Infirmary and in 1928, was awarded FRCS (Fellow from the Royal College of Surgeons), Edinburgh. He worked his passage back to Australia as a Ship’s Surgeon on the on the Australian Commonwealth Line’s T.S.S. Largs Bay. Dr Angus married Gladys in 1929, in Ballarat. (They went on to have one son (Graham 1932, born in SA) and two daughters (Helen (died 12/07/1996) and Berenice (Berry), both born at Mira, Nhill ) Dr Angus was a ‘flying doctor’ for the A.I.M. (Australian Inland Ministry) Aerial Medical Service in 1928 . The organisation began in South Australia through the Presbyterian Church in that year, with its first station being in the remote town of Oodnadatta, where Dr Angus was stationed. He was locum tenens there on North-South Railway at 21 Mile Camp. He took up this ‘flying doctor’ position in response to a call from Dr John Flynn; the organisation was later known as the Flying Doctor Service, then the Royal Flying Doctor Service. A lot of his work during this time involved dental surgery also. Between 1928-1932 he was surgeon at the Curramulka Hospital, Yorke Peninsula, South Australia. In 1933 Dr Angus returned to Nhill where he’d previously worked as Medical Assistant and purchased a share of the Nelson Street practice and Mira hospital from Dr Les Middleton one of the Middleton Brothers, the current owners of what was once Dr Tom Ryan’s practice. Dr L Middleton was House Surgeon to the Nhill Hospital 1926-1933, when he resigned. [Dr Tom Ryan’s practice had originally belonged to his older brother Dr Edward Ryan, who came to Nhill in 1885. Dr Edward saw patients at his rooms, firstly in Victoria Street and in 1886 in Nelson Street, until 1901. The Nelson Street practice also had a 2 bed ward, called Mira Private Hospital ). Dr Edward Ryan was House Surgeon at the Nhill Hospital 1884-1902 . He also had occasions where he successfully performed veterinary surgery for the local farmers too. Dr Tom Ryan then purchased the practice from his brother in 1901. Both Dr Edward and Dr Tom Ryan work as surgeons included eye surgery. Dr Tom Ryan performed many of his operations in the Mira private hospital on his premises. He too was House Surgeon at the Nhill Hospital 1902-1926. Dr Tom Ryan had one of the only two pieces of radiology equipment in Victoria during his practicing years – The Royal Melbourne Hospital had the other one. Over the years Dr Tom Ryan gradually set up what was effectively a training school for country general-practitioner-surgeons. Each patient was carefully examined, including using the X-ray machine, and any surgery was discussed and planned with Dr Ryan’s assistants several days in advance. Dr Angus gained experience in using the X-ray machine there during his time as assistant to Dr Ryan. Dr Tom Ryan moved from Nhill in 1926. He became a Fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons in 1927, soon after its formation, a rare accolade for a doctor outside any of the major cities. He remained a bachelor and died suddenly on 7th Dec 1955, aged 91, at his home in Ararat. Scholarships and prizes are still awarded to medical students in the honour of Dr T.F. Ryan and his father, Dr Michael Ryan, and brother, John Patrick Ryan. ] When Dr Angus bought into the Nelson Street premises in Nhill he was also appointed as the Nhill Hospital’s Honorary House Surgeon 1933-1938. His practitioner’s plate from his Nhill surgery states “HOURS Daily, except Tuesdays, Fridays and Saturday afternoons, 9-10am, 2-4pm, 7-8pm. Sundays by appointment”. This plate is now mounted on the doorway to the Port Medical Office at Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool. Dr Edward Ryan and Dr Tom Ryan had an extensive collection of historical medical equipment and materials spanning 1884-1926 and when Dr Angus took up practice in their old premises he obtained this collection, a large part of which is now on display at the Port Medical Office at Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village in Warrnambool. During his time in Nhill Dr Angus was involved in the merging of the Mira Hospital and Nhill Public Hospital into one public hospital and the property titles passed on to Nhill Hospital in 1939. In 1939 Dr Angus and his family moved to Warrnambool where he purchased “Birchwood,” the 1852 home and medical practice of Dr John Hunter Henderson, at 214 Koroit Street. (This property was sold in1965 to the State Government and is now the site of the Warrnambool Police Station. ). The Angus family was able to afford gardeners, cooks and maids; their home was a popular place for visiting dignitaries to stay whilst visiting Warrnambool. Dr Angus had his own silk worm farm at home in a Mulberry tree. His young daughter used his centrifuge for spinning the silk. Dr Angus was appointed on a part-time basis as Port Medical Officer (Health Officer) in Warrnambool and held this position until the 1940’s when the government no longer required the service of a Port Medical Officer in Warrnambool; he was thus Warrnambool’s last serving Port Medical Officer. (The duties of a Port Medical Officer were outlined by the Colonial Secretary on 21st June, 1839 under the terms of the Quarantine Act. Masters of immigrant ships arriving in port reported incidents of diseases, illness and death and the Port Medical Officer made a decision on whether the ship required Quarantine and for how long, in this way preventing contagious illness from spreading from new immigrants to the residents already in the colony.) Dr Angus was a member of the Australian Medical Association, for 35 years and surgeon at the Warrnambool Base Hospital 1939-1942, He served as a Surgeon Captain during WWII 1941-45, in Ballarat, Victoria, and in Bonegilla, N.S.W., completing his service just before the end of the war due to suffering from a heart attack. During his convalescence he carved an intricate and ‘most artistic’ chess set from the material that dentures were made from. He then studied ophthalmology at the Royal Melbourne Eye and Ear Hospital and created cosmetically superior artificial eyes by pioneering using the intrascleral cartilage. Angus received accolades from the Ophthalmological Society of Australasia for this work. He returned to Warrnambool to commence practice as an ophthalmologist, pioneering in artificial eye improvements. He was Honorary Consultant Ophthalmologist to Warrnambool Base Hospital for 31 years. He made monthly visits to Portland as a visiting surgeon, to perform eye surgery. He represented the Victorian South-West subdivision of the Australian Medical Association as its secretary between 1949 and 1956 and as chairman from 1956 to 1958. In 1968 Dr Angus was elected member of Spain’s Barraquer Institute of Barcelona after his research work in Intrasclearal cartilage grafting, becoming one of the few Australian ophthalmologists to receive this honour, and in the following year presented his final paper on Living Intrasclearal Cartilage Implants at the Inaugural Meeting of the Australian College of Ophthalmologists in Melbourne In his personal life Dr Angus was a Presbyterian and treated Sunday as a Sabbath, a day of rest. He would visit 3 or 4 country patients on a Sunday, taking his children along ‘for the ride’ and to visit with him. Sunday evenings he would play the pianola and sing Scottish songs to his family. One of Dr Angus’ patients was Margaret MacKenzie, author of a book on local shipwrecks that she’d seen as an eye witness from the late 1880’s in Peterborough, Victoria. In the early 1950’s Dr Angus, painted a picture of a shipwreck for the cover jacket of Margaret’s book, Shipwrecks and More Shipwrecks. She was blind in later life and her daughter wrote the actual book for her. Dr Angus and his wife Gladys were very involved in Warrnambool’s society with a strong interest in civic affairs. Their interests included organisations such as Red Cross, Rostrum, Warrnambool and District Historical Society (founding members), Wine and Food Society, Steering Committee for Tertiary Education in Warrnambool, Local National Trust, Good Neighbour Council, Housing Commission Advisory Board, United Services Institute, Legion of Ex-Servicemen, Olympic Pool Committee, Food for Britain Organisation, Warrnambool Hospital, Anti-Cancer Council, Boys’ Club, Charitable Council, National Fitness Council and Air Raid Precautions Group. He was also a member of the Steam Preservation Society and derived much pleasure from a steam traction engine on his farm. He had an interest in people and the community He and his wife Gladys were both involved in the creation of Flagstaff Hill, including the layout of the gardens. After his death (28th March 1970) his family requested his practitioner’s plate, medical instruments and some personal belongings be displayed in the Port Medical Office surgery at Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, and be called the “W. R. Angus Collection”.

Significance

The W.R. Angus Collection is significant for still being located at the site it is connected with, Doctor Angus being the last Port Medical Officer in Warrnambool. The collection of medical instruments and other equipment is culturally significant, being an historical example of medicine from late 19th to mid-20th century. Dr Angus assisted Dr Tom Ryan, a pioneer in the use of X-rays and in ocular surgery.

Trophy

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Trophy silver, with lid, on square, two-tiered timber base, displaying award shields. This is the Sir W. Clarke’s Trophy, for the Victorian Militia Garrison Artillery, first presented in 1886. Large, elaborately decorated, silver bowl with conical shaped pedestal, two handles on top edge of bowl, matching fitted lid; much of the decoration is three dimensional. The fine, detailed decoration includes a semi-kneeling figure with upturned face on top of lid, vine-like handles resting on necks of swans with outspread wings, figures seated on ridge, two on each side, with ends of limbs hanging over the ridge, two holding lyres, patterns of leaves, flowers and draped ribbons. Base is painted black on the outside, has engraved silver shields around its sides with inscriptions of trophy winners. There is a hand written, pencil inscription “1887”under timber base. Trophy is on loan from the Australian Army.

Historical information

This silver trophy is named “Sir W. Clarke’s Trophy” after its donor. Sir William John Clarke, Baronet, who was an esteemed and generous citizen and philanthropist, well known in Melbourne and throughout Victoria. He gave donations to many public projects including Melbourne University and was a patron of many and varied sports. He encouraged the defence services with prizes for competitions among both military and naval forces. In colonial Australia in the 1880’s there was an increase in the size of the colonial military forces, rising from 8,000 in 1883 to 22, 000 in 1885. In 1885 there was a return of unpaid volunteer soldiering, along with a fear of a Russian attack on Australia. The Sir W.J. Clarke’s Trophy was given as a prize in 1885 to Victorian Militia Garrison Battery competition winners, for artillery firing target accuracy in the then colony of Victoria. On Saturday 12th December 1885 the conclusion of the first artillery competition for Sir W. Clarke’s Trophy was held at the Williamstown battery. Competitors over previous weeks were South Grant, Harbor Trust, Warrnambool, South Melbourne (late Footscray), North Melbourne and Geelong, where each man “strove to do his military best”. The first winner of the Sir W. Clarke’s Trophy was the Geelong Garrison Battery, with the prize Sir W. Clark’s Trophy presented to them in 1886. An announcement was made the following year in the Geelong Advertiser; “The very elaborate cup or vase given for competition among the riflemen members of the Victorian Militia by Sir W. J. Clarke, and.won.by the Geelong Artillerymen, was on exhibition in the window of Messrs Bright and Hitchcocks' establishment, Moorabool Street, on Saturday evening. Alongside the massive and handsome trophy was a framed picture containing the photographs of the men who were successful in winning the trophy for the first time.” In 1887 Warrnambool Garrison Artillery, under the command of Major W.S. Helpman, was the proud winner of the Sir W. Clarke’s Trophy. A Government report outlined the benefits of the competitions held to procure the esteemed prize “The annual competitions for the trophies and prizes presented by Sir W. Clarke and Lieut. Colonel Sargood have been keenly contested throughout the Service, and have been productive of much good. Those for the Garrison Artillery have been greatly improved by the introduction of a target which is a fair representation of the mark which would be presented to a battery by a ship attacking it.” The Clarke Trophy contest was held at Point Gellibrand. The trophy was formally unveiled at the Warrnambool orderly-room on 3rd August 1887. The major (Mr. Helpman) addressed the men, expressing a hope that the garrison would do all in their power to keep so handsome a trophy. The garrison were invited to partake of refreshments by the mayor after the parade. In May 1889 the Portland Guardian reported that “the Warrnambool militiamen have again proved their superiority in gunnery in competing for Sir W. J. Clarke's handsome trophy. The effective shooting, faultless drill, and general smartness displayed by the local detachments in handling the big guns at Williamstown on Wednesday last called forth special commendation from the Commandant and other officers on the ground, and the result was from the first looked upon as a moral for the Western district representatives. Although no official returns are yet available, it is certain from what can be learned of the performances of the other batteries in the competition that Warrnambool again wins by a large number of points.” In June 1892 the annual competition was held at the Gellibrand battery in Williamstown. The canvas targets were moored at sea and fired upon from three breech-loading guns mounted on disappearing carriages. Each team was allowed 4 shots fired from each of the 3 guns. An article in the Portland Guardian stated that “the final result will not be known until some time this week, when the canvas from off the target is examined in the presence of umpires and fort commanders but … the Warrnambool team is certainly looked upon as the certain winners.” The same article reported that In this particular year the Government withdrew its previous award of 10 pound cash to the men of the winning team, described in the Portland Guardian as “one of the petty economies of the Government”. The Warrnambool Militia Garrison Artillery did win the Trophy, now for the third time, and because of this they became Absolute Possessors of the prize. On 11th August 2016, in a well-attended ceremony at Flagstaff Hill, the Australian Army handed over custodianship of two very significant historical items - the 1885 W. Clarke Trophy and the 1861 Warrnambool Ladies Silver Bugle – to Warrnambool City Council, and Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, who proudly received them. Both the W. Clarke Trophy and the silver bugle are strongly connected to the Warrnambool Garrison, a Victorian State Heritage Listed site at Flagstaff Hill. [REFERENCES: 1887 Victoria, Report of the Council of Defence; Colonial forces in Australia, Wikipedia; Competition for the Sir William Clarke Trophy, Portland Guardian, 8-6-1892; Firing Competition, Geelong Advertiser, 15-12-1885; Sudden death of Sir W.J. Clarke, Bart., Kalgoorlie Western Argus, 20th May 1897; The Clarke Trophy, Argus Melbourne, 3-8-1887; The very elaborate cup, Geelong Advertiser, 26-7-1886; Warrnambool Militiamen, Portland Guardian, 24-5-1889]

Significance

The Silver Trophy is locally significant to the community of Warrnambool for its connection to the Warrnambool Volunteer Rifle Corps., which formed part of the original Warrnambool Garrison to protect the Warrnambool Harbour. The site of the 1888 Warrnambool Garrison and Fortifications is Victorian State Heritage Listed significant for its intact and operational nature, and is one of the best preserved pieces of Victoria’s early colonial heritage.

Inscriptions & Markings

Trophy’s front, left shield; “1886 / WON BY / GEELONG / GARRISON BATTERY / Major J PRICE / COMMANDING OFFICER” Trophy’s front, centre large shield; “VICTORIAN MILITIA / GARRISON ARTILLERY / SIR W. CLARKE’S / TROPHY” Trophy’s front, right shield; ” -1887- / WON BY / WARRNAMBOOL GARRISON ARTILLERY / Major W.S. Helpman / COMMANDING OFFICER” Trophy’s back, left shield: “1888 / WON BY / NORTH MELBOURNE / Garrison Battery / Major F.R.Y. Goldstein / Commanding Officer” Trophy’s back, centre shield; “1889 / WON BY / WARRNAMBOOL / Garrison Battery / Major W.S. Helpman / Commanding Officer” Trophy’s back, right shield; “1890 / WON BY / HARBOUR TRUST BATTERY / Major J.H. Haydon / Commanding Officer” Trophy’s back, centre shield; “1891 / WON BY / WILLIAMSTOWN BATTERY /l Major W.H. Hall / Commanding Officer” Trophy’s right; left shield; “1892 / WON BY / WARRNAMBOOL / Garrison Battery / Major WS Helpman / Commanding Officer” In pencil underneath timber base “1887”

Journal

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Journal, comprising a collection of sixty (60) medium weight cartridge paper covers of the “Ladies’ Supplement of the London Journal” with a selection of newspaper clippings pasted to the back of all but two of the covers. The journal covers are dated between years 1868 – 1877. They each have a hand coloured engraving. Below some of the illustrations is a name and address (in French). Some of the covers have a portrait orientation and others are landscape. Some of the covers have a length of additional paper on the left/top with small print, as though there has been a magazine spine attached. The covers have printed dates and numbers, and some of the illustrations are numbered and have one or two signatures. On the reverse of the covers is a selection of newspaper cuttings, including poetry, Household Receipts (recipes, helpful hints on household matters, quotes, fashion, etc.) and personal notes, carefully cut to fit onto the pages. Hand written dates on some of these articles show that they are not all from the same date, and don’t necessarily correspond to the date of the cover. Some of these pages have been assembled upside down to the front cover. Also included are additional notes and loose newspaper cuttings from 1878 – 1927.

Historical information

This Journal contains a wide variety of lifestyle subjects, showing an interest in in collection of ladies’ fashion covers, newspaper clippings and personal notes appear to have been gathered by a person with interests in fashion, poetry and the home. The covers dating up to 1870 have signatures such as “E. Preval”, a mid to late 19th century watercolour artist. Covers from 1871 have no signatures but have the word “COPYRIGHT” included in the printing. The name below the illustrations “Moine et Falconer” is a French fashion printer and publisher. The loose newspaper cuttings are dated from 1878 to 1927.

Inscriptions & Markings

Under some of the hand coloured engravings are the printed words “Moine et Falconer, imp. r. St Victor, go Paris” (or similar). There are also one or two signatures on the earlier engravings including “E. Preval”. Printed onto the Journal pages “Price one Penny”. Several of the pages have hand drawn lines and pencil script notes. Many of the newspaper cuttings have a date written in pencil on them. For example, “Stuffing Birds”.. The Ladies’ Supplements have been printed with number for “Published with No. –“, and a number for “Presented with Part -”. Some of the reverse pages have pencil notes beside them.

Post Office Receiving Pillar

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Post Office Receiving Pillar, or letterbox.1885 “High Door Round” design. Tall cast iron cylinder with decorative dome cap with crown on top. Side has a slot and a hinged door with handle shaped as a fist. Painted red with gold trim. “POST OFFICE / RECEIVING PILLAR” lettering cast into cylinder. Restored in 1980 and once again operating as an Australia Post mailbox. Commemorative plague on pillar.

Historical information

This Post Office Receiving Pillar was restored in 1980 and is now a fully operational Australia Post mailbox. In early August 1980 Prime Minister Mr. Fraser posted Warrnambool’s first commemorative envelope into this restored Post Office Receiving Pillar at Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village. The special limited edition envelopes are numbered 1 – 7000. When posted, the envelopes would have the Flagstaff Hill Logo and Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village’s own postmark of a ship’s steering wheel surrounding a lighthouse and a sailing ship, and were dated August 3 on the First Day Cover. Amongst Flagstaff Hill’s collection is that very first letter posted by Prime Minister Fraser. HISTORY OF POST OFFICE RECEIVING PILLARS In 1851 ‘pillar boxes’ were installed at roadside locations in the island of Jersey, England; they had already been successful in several European countries. The use of new prepaid, adhesive postage stamps as well as the roadside pillar boxes meant there was no need for the public to take a trip to the Post Office just to post a letter. By 1855 London had installed its first six Pillar Boxes. In 1856 the pillar boxes were first introduced in Sydney. These were circular with a crown on the dome, supported by leaves. Early Victoria Mail was originally collected by ‘letter carriers’, first appointed in Melbourne in 1841, equipped with leather bag and hand bell. He wore a red coat with brass buttons and a black top hat! In 1844 two wooden receiving boxes were erected in Melbourne. The first cast iron boxes were installed in South Melbourne (Emerald Hill) and were still in service until 1967. They were a fluted circular design and made in England. In the early 1860’s the ‘low door round’ design posting box was introduced, being circular and surrounded by a crown, with two broad embossed bands around its circumference. The clearance door was in front of the box and low down. These were made in Australia. In the early 1870’s square boxes with a tapering top were being used. These too were made in Australia by different manufacturers with slight variations on style such as the orientation and number of slots. Next came the circular boxes again, similar to the ‘low door round’ but with the clearance door extending to just below the posting slot, often referred to as ‘high door round’. These boxes did not have embossed bands. In 1887 small cast iron boxes were introduced, attached to posts and poles and called ‘lamp post receivers’. Around 1930 a ‘London’ model was used in Victoria. It was copied from the flat-domed type in London but made in Tasmania. [References: Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village records, The Warrnambool Standard, August 1st, 1980, “Stamps.Au” http://www.stampsau.com, 4th April 2011 (Extracted from “Australian Street Posting Boxes” by Ken Sparks – out of print)]

Inscriptions & Markings

“POST OFFICE / RECEIVING PILLAR” lettering cast into cylinder. Flagstaff Hill Maritime Museum – Port of Warrnambool. This letter receiver was officially commissioned on 3rd August 1980 by the Prime Minister of Australia, the Right Honourable Malcolm Fraser M.P. on completion of 25 years’ service as the Federal Minister for Wannon.”

Photograph - Miss Christina Giles

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Photograph, in a highly decorative, carved wood frame, is of a young girl standing on a chair. The frame, by Jordan of Warrnambool, has a floral design and is an abstract shape. The girl is Miss Christina Giles. It is part of the Giles Collection.

Historical information

This photograph is of Christina Giles, who died in Wangoom, Warrnambool, in 1899 at 7 years, 5 months and 4 days old. It is part of the Giles Collection, which also includes a photograph of Christina's parents, Henry Giles and his wife Mary Jane (nee Freckleton), whose photograph is in the parlour of the Lighthouse Keeper's Cottage at Flagstaff Hill. They married in 1880. There are many 19th century items of furniture, linen and crockery donated to Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village by Vera and Aurelin Giles. The items are associated with the Giles Family and are known as the “Giles Collection”. These items mostly came from the simple home of Vera’s parents-in-law, Henry Giles and his wife Mary Jane (nee Freckleton), whose photos are in the parlour. They married in 1880. Henry Giles was born at Tower Hill in 1858. He was a labourer on the construction of the Breakwater before leaving in 1895 to build bridges in N.S.W. for about seven years. Mary Jane was born in 1860 at Cooramook. She attended Mailor’s Flat State School where she was also a student teacher before, as family legend has it, she became a governess at “Injemiara” where her grandfather, Francis Freckleton, once owned land. Henry and Mary’s family of six, some of whom were born at Mailor’s Flat and later children at Wangoom, lived with their parents at Wangoom and Purnim west, where Henry died in 1933 and Mary Jane in 1940.

Significance

This photograph is locally significant due to its association with a local pioneering family, the Giles family. The Giles family collection has social significance at a local level, because it illustrates the level of material support the Warrnambool community gave to Flagstaff Hill when the Museum was established.

Inscriptions & Markings

"Jordan Warrnambool"

Photograph

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Photograph, sepia coloured, with accompanying letter. The photograph is a portrait of a young girl in a short sleeved top with a flower on her left shoulder. The girl is "Angela Elizabeth Pearce, granddaughter of Tom Pearce" as inscribed on back of photograph. Tom Pearce was one of two survivors of the 1878 shipwreck LOCH ARD. Included with the photograph is a letter from its donor, Pamela Joan Dormer, other granddaughter of Tom Pearce. The letter dated 4th May 2010 explains the connection between Angela Pearce and Tom Pearce's Bible.

Historical information

This photograph is of Angela Elizabeth Pearce, granddaughter of Tom Pearce - one of only 2 survivors from the shipwreck LOCH ARD. Angela Elizabeth Pearce had written in her grandfather’s Bible in childish handwriting the words “This Bible belongs to Angela E. Pearce”. Angela was born in England in 1925 and died in Woollahra N.S.W. in 1944, aged 19. She was one of Tom Pearce’s granddaughters. Her father, Robert Pearce was Tom’s second son. Tom Pearce is a famous hero, the rescuer of Eva Carmichael, the only other survivor from the 1878 shipwreck of the LOCH ARD. The Bible was given to Tom Pearce in recognition of his bravery at the wreck of the LOCH ARD. It is on loan to Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village from Parks Victoria. The ‘official’ inscription in the Bible reads, “Presented to Mr Thomas Pearce, In recognition of invaluable service performed in saving life when the Loch Ard was wrecked off the coast of Australia., by the Loyal Orange Institution of Victoria, Protestant Hall, Melbourne, August 1878” The photograph is accompanied by a letter, dated 4th May 2010, and is written by Angela’s cousin, Pamela Dormer of Devon, U.K. Her letter includes the words “Dear Mr Abbott, re Tom Pearce’s Bible, As you know, I have been in contact with Mr Peter Yarnis about means by which my grandfather’s presentation Bible can be released to be exhibited with his other effects, like the binoculars at Flagstaff Hill Museum. In the event that it will be, I have enclosed a photograph to join it. When my son Bill Dormer was at Port Campbell he was about to handle his great grandfather’s Bible and was surprised by a childish inscription opposite that of his presentation, which reads (I think this is the way it goes), THIS BIBLE IS THE PROPERTY OF ANGELA ELIZABETH PEARCE. Angela is my late cousin. Her father was Tom Pearce’s second son Robert Strasenburgh Pearce. I and my brother Raymond Simpson are the surviving grandchildren of Tom, by my mother Edith May Pearce, his only daughter. Angela and her mother, at the beginning of W.W.2, evacuated from England to Sydney, N.S.W. but sadly both were dead by early in the 60’s. Robert (my uncle Bobby) went down with his ship on the Malta Convoy, code named PEDESTAL, escorting with other ships the vital oil tanker OHIO to the island. (signed) Pamela Dormer” THE LOCH ARD’S STORY The sailing ship LOCH ARD was built in Glasgow in 1873 and belonged to the famous Loch Line. She made three trips to Australia and one trip to Calcutta before its final voyage which ended in tragedy near Port Campbell. The LOCH ARD left England on March 2, 1878, under the command of Captain Gibbs, a newly married, 29 year old. The ship carried a general cargo which reflected the affluence of Melbourne at the time. On board were straw hats, umbrella, perfumes, clay pipes, pianos, clocks, confectionary, linen and candles, as well as a heavier load of railway irons, cement, lead and copper. LOCH ARD also had a crew of 37, and 17 passengers. The voyage to Port Phillip was long but uneventful. At 3am on June 1, 1878, Captain Gibbs was expecting to see land and the passengers were becoming excited as they prepared to view their new homeland in the early morning. But LOCH ARD was running into a fog which greatly reduced visibility. Captain Gibbs was becoming anxious as there was no sign of land or the Cape Otway lighthouse. At 4am the fog lifted. A man aloft announced that he could see breakers. The sheer cliffs of Victoria's west coast came into view, and Captain Gibbs realised that the ship was much closer to them than expected. He ordered as much sail to be set as time would permit and then attempted to steer the boat out to sea. On coming head on into the wind, the ship lost momentum, the sails fell limp and LOCH ARD's bow swung back. Gibbs then ordered the anchors to be released in an attempt to hold its position. The anchors sank some 50 fathoms - but did not hold. By this time LOCH ARD was among the breakers, and the tall cliffs of Mutton Bird Island rose behind the ship. Just half a mile from the coast, the ship's bow was suddenly pulled around by the anchor. The captain tried to tack out to sea, but the ship struck a reef running out from Mutton Bird Island. Waves broke over the ship and the top deck was loosened from the hull. The masts and rigging came crashing down knocking passengers and crew overboard. It took time to free the lifeboats and when one was finally launched, it crashed into the side of LOCH ARD and capsized. Tom Pearce, who had launched the boat, managed to cling to its overturned hull and shelter beneath it. He drifted out to sea and then on the flood tide came into what is now known as LOCH ARD Gorge. He swam to shore, bruised and dazed and found a cave in which to shelter. Some of the crew stayed below deck to shelter from the falling rigging but drowned when the ship slipped off the reef into deeper water. Eva Carmichael had raced onto deck to find out what was happening only to be confronted by towering cliffs looming above the stricken ship. In all the chaos, Captain Gibbs grabbed Eva and said, "if you are saved Eva, let my dear wife know that I died like a sailor". That was the last Eva Carmichael saw of the captain. She was swept off the ship by a huge wave. Eva saw Tom Pearce on a small rocky beach and yelled to attract his attention. He dived in and swam to the exhausted woman and dragged her to shore. He took her to the cave and broke open a case of brandy which had washed up on the beach. He opened a bottle to revive the unconscious woman. A few hours later Tom scaled a cliff in search of help. He followed hoof prints and came by chance, upon two men from nearby Glenample Station three and a half miles away. In a state of exhaustion, he told the men of the tragedy. Tom returned to the gorge while the two men rode back to the station to get help. By the time they reached LOCH ARD Gorge, it was cold and dark. The two shipwreck survivors were taken to Glenample Station to recover. Eva stayed at the station for six weeks before returning to Ireland, this time by steamship. In Melbourne, Tom Pearce received a hero's welcome. He was presented with the first gold medal of the Royal Humane Society of Victoria and a £1000 cheque from the Victorian Government. Concerts were performed to honour the young man's bravery and to raise money for those who lost family in the LOCH ARD disaster. The media of the time had created one of Australia's first media celebrities. Everyone followed the story of Tom Pearce and Eva Carmichael with great interest and were disappointed when the two went their separate ways. It was felt by many that Tom should have proposed to Eva - given they had spent an evening together unsupervised in the cave and had drunk brandy to keep warm. Coleman Jacobs composed the music “The Young Hero Schottische” and dedicated it, by permission, to Mr. Thomas R. (Tom) Pearce. The sheet music was published in 1878 by the Messieurs Roberts, professors of dancing etc. Melbourne. It was on sale for 3/- (3 shillings) and in aid of the “LOCH ARD” fund. [This is Coleman Jacobs’ only surviving musical work Coleman Jacobs, accomplished pianist, musical performer, singer, composer, professor of music and music teacher, was born in 1827 and died on 4 July 1885, aged 58 years. Coleman Jacobs was buried in the Melbourne Cemetery (grave 461, Church of England section).] The wreck of LOCH ARD still lies at the base of Mutton Bird Island and much of the cargo has been salvaged. Some was washed up into what is now known as LOCH ARD Gorge following the shipwreck. Cargo and artefacts have also been illegally salvaged over many years before protective legislation was introduced.

Significance

The photographic is of significance because of Tom Pearce and his association with the disaster of the LOCH ARD shipwreck, which is of State significance ― Victorian Heritage Register S417 Flagstaff Hill’s collection of artefacts from LOCH ARD is significant for being one of the largest collections of artefacts from this shipwreck in Victoria. It is significant for its association with the shipwreck, which is on the Victorian Heritage Register (VHR S417). The collection is significant because of the relationship between the objects, as together they have a high potential to interpret the story of the LOCH ARD. The LOCH ARD collection is archaeologically significant as the remains of a large international passenger and cargo ship. The LOCH ARD collection is historically significant for representing aspects of Victoria’s shipping history and its potential to interpret sub-theme 1.5 of Victoria’s Framework of Historical Themes (living with natural processes). The collection is also historically significant for its association with the LOCH ARD, which was one of the worst and best known shipwrecks in Victoria’s history.

Inscriptions & Markings

Back of photograph, written in blue pen “ANGELA ELIZABETH PEARCE / TOM PEARCE’S GRANDAUGHTER / PHOTO PRESENTED BY / HIS OTHER GRANDAUGHTER / PAMELA JOAN DORMER / 2010” Letter from Pamela Dormer verifying the connection between Angela Pearce and Tom Pearce’s Bible.

Compass

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Pocket compass, brass, set into a square wooden case with hinged lid and small hook catch. Compass is marked with 360 degrees and compass points and has two pointers; one to show magnetic north and one to set the direction of travel. Hinges are triangular and inset into the wood. The lid has an attached brass plaque with the inscription "Chas Gray, Leith, 1839" (It likely belonged to Charles Gray, Leith, UK, who migrated to Port Philip Australia in 1839 and became a successful pastoralist.)

Historical information

This magnetic compass is a good size to fit easily into a person's pocket or personal luggage and is protected from knocks by its wooden case. It could have been used for reference when travelling on land or sea. There is no visible manufacturer's mark, which may mean that it was not of high monetary value. Leith is a district of Edinburgh in the country of Scotland, the U.K. It was once the Port of Edinburgh and many migrant ships departed from here bound for the Australian colony. It had a busy shipbuilding industry, with wet and dry docks. It appears from the inscription on the case "Chas Gray, LEITH, 1839" that this pocket compass once belonged to Charles M. Gray (Chas is a common abbreviation for the name Charles). The inscription coincides with the name, place and date that the Western Victorian pioneer Charles M. Gray left Scotland and arrived in Australia. Charles Gray was born in Anstruther, Scotland, in 1818. His family was connected with the Royal Marines, which may have created his in nautical instruments such as this pocket compass. Charles Gray arrived in Hobsons Bay on 15 June 1839 in the ship “Midlothian”. That same ship had departed from Leith, Scotland on February 15th 1839. Did Charles Gray acquire the pocket compass in Leith, perhaps as a gift or a souvenir of his motherland? Charles Gray was an early squatter and went on to become a very successful settler as a sheep pastoralist in the Western District of what is now Victoria (originally the colony of New South Wales). He and his wife had a large property called “Nareeb Nareeb”, Green Hill Creek District (now Glenthompson), Victoria, from 1840-1886. He was also a local Councillor and Justice of the Peace, and had an interest in the local aboriginal people; he named his property after their tribe. Charles returned to England in 1890 and died there in 1905. Charles Gray had written an account in 1890 of his life at Nareeb Nareeb, called Western Victoria in the forties: reminiscences of a pioneer, a valuable historical reference to colonial Victoria. His book was published by the Hamilton Spectator in 1932. Charles Grays photograph is one of 713 historical photographs of early Victorian settlers, created as a montage by Thomas Foster Chuck in 1872. The State Library of Victoria holds the framed montage titled “The Explorers and Early Colonists of Victoria”. To qualify for inclusion on this montage the Settlers must have arrived in Victoria before 1843. Charles Grays photograph is number 349!

Significance

The pocket compass is associated with Charles Gray, one of the early squatters and settlers in Western Victoria, possibly given to him as a parting gift on his emigration to Van Diemans land in 1839. The item is very significant as it's connection with one of Victoria's early pioneers is well provenanced by the inscriptions on the wooden case.

Inscriptions & Markings

“Chas Gray / LEITH / 1839” engraved on brass plaque on lid.

Photographs

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Photographs; black and white (12) of Reginald M, and colour (1) of Polly Woodside, with negative strips (6) in packet, plus letter in stamped and postmarked envelope addressed to Mr A Clapham of Footscray. All are contained in Kodak envelope. They are associated with Flagstaff Hill’s acquisition of the vessel “Reginald M”. Envelope postmarked 9 Dec 1972 3280, 7c Australian postage stamp.

Historical information

Andy Clapham owned and operated a boat yard on the Maribyrnong River in Footscray, Victoria. The river runs into Port Phillip Bay (sometimes known as Hobson’s bay) at Williamstown, an area with a history of trades associated with the shipping and construction industry. Andy Clapham’s photographs include those of the Reginald M and one of Polly Woodside, another vessel restored and used as a maritime exhibition. Andy Clapham’s letter of 1972 was posted in a and envelope with an early Australian decimal currency stamp showing the profile portrait of Queen Elizabeth II, and valued at 7c (cents). Andy offered invaluable advice to the Flagstaff Hill Historic Park Planning Board regarding the purchase a vessel suitable for use as an exhibit once Flagstaff Hill was opened. The Planning Board was set up ty the Warrnambool Chamber of Commerce and approved by the City Council and State Government. Flagstaff Hill was investigating vessels in Adelaide and Tasmania as well as Melbourne. Andy looked at several vessels in 1972-1973. He also serviced the Reginald M among other vessels belonging to Captain Julian Dyson of Yarra Ferries, who had casually offered the vessel to Flagstaff Hill as a price that was unattainable at the time. Flagstaff Hill later requested photographs of the hull to discern the dimensions and also the condition of the timbers as well as wanting advice on its seafaring capability. In 1972 the Flagstaff Hill Historic Park Planning Board – Chairman J. (John) S. Lindsay (1972-1980), Secretary J. (James) Mark – wrote a letter of appreciation to Mr A. (Andy) Clapham of 3 Charles Street Footscray ... “Dear Mr. Clapham, The Board has asked me to write to you to express our appreciation for the assistance you have offered us through our Chairman John Lindsay. The information you have already given us has been invaluable, in that is shows us that we have not been setting out to do something that is impossible. We look forward to receiving further information from you as it becomes available and we appreciate that you must be busy enough without our problems. Members of our Board hope to call and see you on a trip to Melbourne in the near future. The Board is optimistic about the future of Flagstaff Hill as a Maritime Museum and look forward to you visiting Warrnambool to examine what we believe will be an ideal site. Yours faithfully, James Mark.” ABOUT the vessel “Reginald M” The vessel “Reginald M” was a two-masted, timber coastal vessel built by John Henry Murch in Birkenhead, Port of Adelaide, South Australia. It was named after Reginald Murch. (It was occasionally referred to as the Reginald “Emm”). Its construction took approximately 6 months using many materials and fittings from salvage yards. It is believed that the keep was hewn from two telegraph poles! Reginald M was launched at Largs Bay in 1922. Reginald M was approximately 30 metres long and was fore-to-aft ketch rigged with an ‘auxiliary’ motor to support any loss of sail power. The Reginald M was built to service the coastal ports of South Australia to Port Victoria on the York Peninsular, Spencer Gulf. It freighted cargo from port to port cheaply and efficiently. It had a very shallow draft and a flat bottom, enabling it to come close to shore and sit high and dry at low tide, or to be beached on the sand. It could easily skim over reefs due to its flat bottom. Wagons could be loaded and unloaded directly from the side of the vessel. Over the years her cargo included guano, barley, wool, horses, cattle, timber, explosives, potatoes, shell grit and gypsum. The Murch brothers from Port Adelaide were owners of the Reginald M and Richard Murch as the Captain. On April 9, 1931, Reginald M weathered a large storm in St. Vincents Gulf, SA, suffering much damage; the mast snapped and the crew laboured for four hours to free it up by severing the mast and rigging. The crew patched it up and slowly returned to Port Adelaide with only a portion of the insured cargo being damaged. The crew members at that time were owner Mr John Henry Murch of Wells Street Largs Bay, Skipper Mr R Murch – John’s brother, Murray – son of Captain Murch and Seaman John Smith. At some stage it seems that the Reginald M was used as a Customs vessel “H.M.C. No. 3, Pt Adelaide” as shown in a photograph in Flagstaff Hill’s collection. In 1969 Reginald M’s last freight trip left Marion Bay, carrying grain, wool and explosives. In late 1970 it was sold to the Mount Lyall Mining and Railway Clompany and used as a barge to carry explosives. In 1972 The Navy League of Strahan, Tasmania, purchased the vessel for use by the Strahan Sea Cadet Unit at Macquarie Harbour; it was renamed “T.S. Macquarie”. (This plan did not come to pass.) In 1974 Mr Andrew Rennie of East Brighton, Melbourne, brought Reginald M for shipping purposes, He sailed it from Strahan to Melbourne, planning to use it for pleasure sailing. The Reginald M was later sold at auction to Captain Julian Dyson, owner of Yarra Passenger Ferries in Melbourne. Later in 1975 funds became available to Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village to purchase the Reginald M. It was then restored and used as an exhibit here for many hears. Flagstaff Hill’s collection also includes various objects related to the Reginald M: - Photographs of Reginald M over the years in various aspects of its use - a life buoy with the inscription of “Pt. Adelaide” - helm section that was removed and replaced during restoration - a bullet found in pieces of timber during the 1979 restoration [references include "Transfer of Reginald M from sea to Flagstaff Hill – John Lindsay" ]

Significance

The letter and photographs are significant for their association with the Reginald M, an Australian built coastal trader now on the Australian Register of Historic Vessels (number HV000562). The letter and photographs are also significant as part of both the history of Flagstaff Hill and the history of the vessel “Reginald M” that has been on display in the lake for many years. Objects retained from this boat are included in Flagstaff Hill’s collection of maritime history.

Inscriptions & Markings

Outer envelope W 16 x H 11cm

Peacock statue

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Earthenware peacock, known as the Loch Ard Peacock. Found amongst the cargo of the shipwreck of Loch Ard. Majolica glazes. Solid vine-entwined base. About fifty of the eyes that adorn the tail may be counted, even though the tail is furled. Designed and modelled in 1873 in Staffordshire, England. This peacock was designed and modelled at Minton Potteries by French sculptor and artist Paul Comolera who was born in Paris 1818. (Victorian Heritage Register listed - VHR h 2132)

Historical information

This peacock, known as the "Loch Ard Peacock" was designed by Paul Comolera in 1873 and fired in the famous Minton pottery at Stoke on Trent in England. This earthenware, majolica-glazed bird set sail from Gravesend bound for Melbourne on 1 March 1878. The ship on which it travelled was the ill fated Lock Ard. The peacock, along with other examples of Minton earthenware, was bound for the Great Exhibition of 1880 to celebrate the opening of Melbourne's newly completed Exhibition building. On the night of 31 May 1878, the Lock Ard warily searched for the 'eye of the needle'. The captain, George Gibb, was unsure of his exact location. In the predawn of 1 June, the Loch Ard sank off Mutton Bird Island. The peacock was well packed in wooden crate, or cask, that floated. It was also under the personal care of Captain Gibb and therefore not likely to be deep in the hold; apparently the hatches broke open in the wreck, allowing many lighter goods to float out. RESCUE: There are two claimants to this honour. Mr Charles McGillivray claimed to have dragged the peacock to the beach just two days after the Lock Ard went down. The peacock was rescued unscathed but for a chip on its beak. It seems probable that, for this damage to have observed, some opening and partial examination of the packing case's contents must have been made. After a disagreement with Melbourne Customs Officer, Joseph Daish, Mr. McGillivray stopped his salvage operations and returned home, leaving the peacock on the beach. The second claimants were Mr. James Miller and Thomas Keys. James Miller was a member of the firm Howarth, Miller and Matthews of Geelong , who had brought the salvage rights to the wreck on 10 June. Thomas Keys was a driver. A storm blew up on 12 June, before Miller and Keys arrived at the wreck site, and washed many of the salvaged goods back into the sea. It was at this time that they claimed to have rescued the peacock from the sea. While McGillivray was certainly the person to haul it from the water immediately after the shipwreck, Miller and Keys' claim to have rescued the peacock from the sea, probably on or after 14 June, must also be acknowledge. Certainly if they had not hauled it to the cliff top, it may have been lost in the second storm. It appears likely, then, that the peacock was rescued from the sea not once but twice and that both claims are true. In an interview in 1928 (some 50 years later),Thomas Keys' claimed that - at the time of the rescue - the head had broken from the body. Miss Florence Miller, daughter of James Miller, later remarked that the only item of real value rescued from the wreck had been the peacock and that this had been kept by her father in the family home. The peacock, then, began its life in Australia in the hallway of a domestic house in Geelong.Here it was to remain until 1940. The peacock travelled to Melbourne National Museum Exhibition on 1 June 1935. This was the 57th anniversary of the wreck. After Miss Miller's death, it remained in an antique dealer's shop in Melbourne until about 1943, when it was bought a6 auction by Mr. Frank Ridley-Lee and eventually placed in his new home in Heidelberg, a suburb of Melbourne. The peacock remained in the hands of the Ridley-Lees until it was offered for sale in 1975 as part of Mrs Ridley-Lee's estate. On 1 June 1975 an advertisement in Melbourne newspaper The Age announced the sale by auction of the art collection of the Ridley-Lee estate; this included the Loch Ard Peacock. Fortunately the peacock was not sold at this time as the reserve price of $4500 was not met. This news was passed on to board of the newly created Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village. Urgent efforts were made to raise the necessary funds. The required amount was raised through public donations. The Fletcher Jones company and the Victorian Government paid 50 per cent of the cost. On 9 September 1975, the Loch Ard Peacock was purchased by Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village in Warrnambool. Today the loch Ard Peacock remains in the Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village. Since 1975 it has left Warrnambool only twice. In 1980, as an important figure in the centenary celebrations of the Exhibition Building in Melbourne. From April to October 1988, the peacock was given pride of place at the entrance to the Victorian Pavilion in the Brisbane World Expo. The Claim of Peter Ronald that the peacock was 'the most significant shipwreck artefact in Australia' was being acknowledged as true. HISTORY OF THE LOCH ARD The LOCH ARD belonged to the famous Loch Line which sailed many ships from England to Australia. Built in Glasgow by Barclay, Curdle and Co. in 1873, the LOCH ARD was a three-masted square rigged iron sailing ship. The ship measured 262ft 7" (79.87m) in length, 38ft (11.58m) in width, 23ft (7m) in depth and had a gross tonnage of 1693 tons. The LOCH ARD's main mast measured a massive 150ft (45.7m) in height. LOCH ARD made three trips to Australia and one trip to Calcutta before its final voyage. LOCH ARD left England on March 2, 1878, under the command of Captain Gibbs, a newly married, 29 year old. She was bound for Melbourne with a crew of 37, plus 17 passengers and a load of cargo. The general cargo reflected the affluence of Melbourne at the time. On board were straw hats, umbrella, perfumes, clay pipes, pianos, clocks, confectionary, linen and candles, as well as a heavier load of railway irons, cement, lead and copper. There were items included that intended for display in the Melbourne International Exhibition in 1880. The voyage to Port Phillip was long but uneventful. At 3am on June 1, 1878, Captain Gibbs was expecting to see land and the passengers were becoming excited as they prepared to view their new homeland in the early morning. But LOCH ARD was running into a fog which greatly reduced visibility. Captain Gibbs was becoming anxious as there was no sign of land or the Cape Otway lighthouse. At 4am the fog lifted. A man aloft announced that he could see breakers. The sheer cliffs of Victoria's west coast came into view, and Captain Gibbs realised that the ship was much closer to them than expected. He ordered as much sail to be set as time would permit and then attempted to steer the vessel out to sea. On coming head on into the wind, the ship lost momentum, the sails fell limp and LOCH ARD's bow swung back. Gibbs then ordered the anchors to be released in an attempt to hold its position. The anchors sank some 50 fathoms - but did not hold. By this time LOCH ARD was among the breakers and the tall cliffs of Mutton Bird Island rose behind the ship. Just half a mile from the coast, the ship's bow was suddenly pulled around by the anchor. The captain tried to tack out to sea, but the ship struck a reef at the base of Mutton Bird Island, near Port Campbell. Waves broke over the ship and the top deck was loosened from the hull. The masts and rigging came crashing down knocking passengers and crew overboard. When a lifeboat was finally launched, it crashed into the side of LOCH ARD and capsized. Tom Pearce, who had launched the boat, managed to cling to its overturned hull and shelter beneath it. He drifted out to sea and then on the flood tide came into what is now known as LOCH ARD Gorge. He swam to shore, bruised and dazed, and found a cave in which to shelter. Some of the crew stayed below deck to shelter from the falling rigging but drowned when the ship slipped off the reef into deeper water. Eva Carmichael had raced onto deck to find out what was happening only to be confronted by towering cliffs looming above the stricken ship. In all the chaos, Captain Gibbs grabbed Eva and said, "If you are saved Eva, let my dear wife know that I died like a sailor". That was the last Eva Carmichael saw of the captain. She was swept off the ship by a huge wave. Eva saw Tom Pearce on a small rocky beach and yelled to attract his attention. He dived in and swam to the exhausted woman and dragged her to shore. He took her to the cave and broke open case of brandy which had washed up on the beach. He opened a bottle to revive the unconscious woman. A few hours later Tom scaled a cliff in search of help. He followed hoof prints and came by chance upon two men from nearby Glenample Station three and a half miles away. In a state of exhaustion, he told the men of the tragedy. Tom returned to the gorge while the two men rode back to the station to get help. By the time they reached LOCH ARD Gorge, it was cold and dark. The two shipwreck survivors were taken to Glenample Station to recover. Eva stayed at the station for six weeks before returning to Ireland, this time by steamship. In Melbourne, Tom Pearce received a hero's welcome. He was presented with the first gold medal of the Royal Humane Society of Victoria and a £1000 cheque from the Victorian Government. Concerts were performed to honour the young man's bravery and to raise money for those who lost family in the LOCH ARD disaster. Of the 54 crew members and passengers on board, only two survived: the apprentice, Tom Pearce and the young woman passenger, Eva Carmichael, who lost all of her family in the tragedy. Ten days after the LOCH ARD tragedy, salvage rights to the wreck were sold at auction for £2,120. Cargo valued at £3,000 was salvaged and placed on the beach, but most washed back into the sea when another storm developed. The wreck of LOCH ARD still lies at the base of Mutton Bird Island. Much of the cargo has now been salvaged and some was washed up into what is now known as LOCH ARD Gorge. Cargo and artefacts have also been illegally salvaged over many years before protective legislation was introduced. One of the most unlikely pieces of cargo to have survived the shipwreck was a Minton porcelain peacock - one of only seven in the world. The peacock was destined for the Melbourne International Exhibition in 1880. It had been well packed, which gave it adequate protection during the violent storm. Today, the Minton peacock can be seen at the Flagstaff Hill Maritime Museum in Warrnambool. From Australia's most dramatic shipwreck it has now become Australia's most valuable shipwreck artefact and is one of very few 'objects' on the Victorian State Heritage Register.

Significance

State Heritage Listed (VHR H2132) It is considered of historical, social and aesthetic significance to Victoria for being the most notable object associated with the Loch Ard wreck, for its association with the Loch Ard and 1880 Melbourne International Exhibition and for being an ‘excellent and rare example’ of a Minton product from the 1870s. The Heritage Council of Victoria has determined that The Loch Ard Peacock (89 Merri St Warrnambool) is of Cultural Heritage Significance to the State of Victoria. It was included on the Victorian Heritage Register on 11th February 2010 - Victorian Heritage Register Number H2132 "This renowned majolica peacock sculpture made between 1873 and 1878 by the English pottery company Minton & Co., was salvaged from the 1878 Loch Ard shipwreck, one of Victoria's worst shipwreck tragedies."

Inscriptions & Markings

Design number stamped on base of statue "2045" (taken from the Minton factory design book)

Skylight frame

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Skylight frame. The glass pane is missing. Heavily encrusted brass framework. 8 bolts around the long side. 4 bars of metal forming 2 ‘v’ shapes across the centre, slightly concave towards the inner side. The shorter ends of the frame each have a ‘U’ shaped bracket attached in the centre. The shorter ends are wider on one end and taper towards the other end to about a quarter of the thickness.

Historical information

This skylight frame would have been fitted on the Newfield’s poop deck (or raised deck that forms the roof of a cabin at the aft or rear of the ship). It would have covered and protected a glass pane that allowed light to enter the area below desk. The glass pane from the skylight is missing. The Newfield was a three-masted iron and steel barque, built in Dundee, Scotland, in 1889 by Alexander Stephen and Sons. It was owned by the Newfield Ship Company in 1890 and later that year It was registered in Liverpool to owners Brownells and Co. The Newfield left Sharpness, Scotland, on 28th May 1892 with a crew of 25 under the command of Captain George Scott and on 1st June left Liverpool. She was bound for Brisbane, Australia, with a cargo of 1850 tons of fine rock salt, the main export product of Sharpness. At about 9pm on 28th August 1892, in heavy weather, Captain Scott sighted, between heavy squalls, the Cape Otway light on the mainland of Victoria but, due to a navigational error (the ship’s chronometers were wrong), he assumed it to be the Cape Wickham light on King Island, some 40 miles south. He altered his course to the north, expecting to enter Bass Strait. The ship was now heading straight for the south west Victorian coast. At about 1:30am the Newfield ran aground on a reef about 100 yards from shore and one mile east of Curdie’s Inlet, Peterborough. The ship struck heavily three times before grounding on an inner shoal with 6 feet of water in the holds. Rough sea made the job of launching lifeboats very difficult. The first two lifeboats launched by the crew were smashed against the side of the ship and some men were crushed or swept away. The third lifeboat brought eight men to shore. It capsized when the crew tried to return it to the ship for further rescue The rescue was a difficult operation. The Port Campbell Rocket Crew arrived and fired four rocket lines, none of which connected with the ship. Peter Carmody, a local man, volunteered to swim about one mile off shore to the ship with a line to guide the fourth and final lifeboat safely to shore. He was assisted by James McKenzie and Gerard Irvine. Seventeen men survived the shipwreck but the captain and eight of his crew perished. The Newfield remained upright on the reef with sails set for a considerable time as the wind slowly ripped the canvas to shreds and the sea battered the hull to pieces. The Marine Board inquiry found the wreck was caused by a "one man style of navigation" and that the Captain had not heeded the advice of his crew. According to Jack Loney ‘… when the drama was over . . the Newfield was deserted except for the Captain’s dog and two pigs.’ Peter Carmody was awarded the Bramley-Moore medal by the Liverpool Shipwreck and Humane Society for Saving Life at Ssea, which he received by mail on January 21st 1893. The Skylight joins other items in the Newfield collection.

Significance

Flagstaff Hill’s collection of artefacts from the Newfield is significant for its association with the shipwreck Newfield, which is listed on the Victorian Heritage Registry. The collection is significant because of the relationship between the objects. The Newfield collection is archaeologically significant as the remains of an international cargo ship. The Newfield collection is historically significant for representing aspects of Victoria’s shipping history and its association with the shipwreck.

Octant

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Octant, once belonging to Captain Farquhar Chisholm. Wedge shape (the size of an eighth of a circle), made of wood, glass and metal. Used in the 1880s. Maker’s name across centre “L. SIMON - - - SHIELDS”. Three (3) light filtering, coloured glass shades. Two (2) eyepieces. Scale attached for measuring angles. Label inside the fitted, wedge-shaped case "Thomas L. Ainsley, Optician"

Historical information

An Octant is a doubly reflecting navigation instrument used primarily by sailors to measure the angular distance between two visible objects and was a forerunner of the sextant. The name comes from the Latin octo, or “one-eighth of a circle,” for the Octants arc which spans 45°, or one-eighth of a circle. The primary use of an Octant is to measure the angle between an astronomical object and the horizon for the purposes of celestial navigation. The estimation of this angle, is known as sighting or shooting the object, or taking a sight. The angle, and the time when it was measured, can be used to calculate a position line on a nautical chart (latitude), for example, sighting the Sun at noon or Polaris at night (in the Northern Hemisphere) gives an angle by which the latitude can then be estimated. Sighting the height of a landmark on land can also give a measure of distance. This fine octant once belonged to Captain Farquhar Chisholm and was donated by his granddaughter, Margaret Ruth Greer (nee Chisholm, born 1914). The label inside the Octants box reads “Thomas L. Ainsley, Instrument Maker … etc”. Farquhar Chisholm was born in 1832 in Inverness, Scotland. He regularly sailed on perilous voyages between Quebec, Canada and the Baltic ports of Europe. In 1854 he migrated to Australia during the Gold Rush, to a place called Fiery Creek (near Beaufort Victoria) where he was fairly successful in his quest for gold. In the years of the Great Gold Rush it was said that there were over 40,000 diggers in the gold fields of the Beaufort area! In 1857 having made sufficient money, he hired another crew and returned to Clachnacuddin, Inverness shire, Scotland and in that same year, he studied and obtained his Master Mariner Certificate (which would have included the use of an octant for navigation). He was appointed to Mr George (or James) Walker, as commander of his sailing ship, the 3-masted ELIZABETH, built 1859 and known as “The Walker barque”. In 1870 he married, then in 1887 returned to Australia with his wife and children (Kenneth Chisholm (1871), Mary Bremner Chisholm (1873), Margaret Hood Chisholm (1874), Farquhar Chisholm (1878)). They arrived in Port Melbourne, Victoria and sadly, only six weeks after landing, his wife Caroline passed away (in Geelong,1888). In 1900 Capt. Chisholm lived in Camperdown (Victoria) and not long after this his daughter Margaret died of consumption. In his later years, he went to live in the manse of St. Paul’s Presbyterian Church, Wangaratta, with his son, Rev. Farquhar Chisholm. He died there on Sat, 23rd March 1912, 80 years old. He was known as “… quiet, unobtrusive and competent, respected by all with whom he came in contact”. Some other members of Captain Chisholm’s family are; his older son Kenneth Chisholm, who was a contractor in Camperdown; a nephew Donald Macintosh (of 23 Douglas Row, Inverness); a grandson Brian Jones (son of Caroline Belle-Jones nee Chisholm, who lived in Camperdown in the earlier part of her life).

Significance

The octant, the forerunner of the sextant, was a significant step in providing accuracy of a sailors latitude position at sea & his vessels distance from land when taking sightings of land-based landmarks.

Inscriptions & Markings

Label inside case "Thomas L. Ainsley, Optician" Maker’s name across centre “L. SIMON - - - SHIELDS”.

Vessel

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Vessel, the ‘Viator’, an historic Victorian ‘couta boat, handmade by renowned boat builder J.R. Jones of Williamstown, c.1890-1920. Single masted carvel vessel with a wooden hull and a pivoting centreboard and is likely to have had gaff rigging. The keel was constructed from red gum, the stern and stern posts were jarrah, and the planking and ribs were New Zealand Kauri. Viator is listed on the Australian Register of Historical Vessels (ARHV Number: HV000561)

Historical information

The Viator, a Victorian ‘couta boat, was built by renowned boat builder J.R. Jones of Williamstown, Melbourne between 1890 and 1920. Its keel was red gum, stern and stern posts were jarrah, and the hull’s planking and ribs were New Zealand Kauri. The son of J.R. Jones (J.B. Jones) was also a ‘couta boat builder. Viator served as a ‘couta fishing boat in the Warrnambool area until the mid-1930’s. Before then it may also have been used for fishing in the Apollo Bay and Queenscliff region. It seems that Viator also sailed the mail run between Port Phillip Bay and Apollo Bay. Viator then served as a mail boat across to Portland, and later as a fishing and recreation boat for local families. For years Viator sat in a paddock in East Warrnambool until purchased in 1975 and donated to Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, where she is the most significant boat in the museum’s fleet. ‘COUTA BOATS The ‘couta design for vessels is believed to have originated at Port Phillip, Victoria, for the purpose of the Barracouta (‘couta) fishing industry, being both fast and seaworthy. J.R. Jones was one of the early builders of craft with this design. The Viator is a rare example of the ‘couta craft from the early days that were sailed by fishermen for many years. It is carvel planked, has an open cockpit, a vertical stem and straight Keel, single mast and a pivoting centreboard. These features are all characteristics of an early Bass Strait ‘couta boat, as confirmed by experienced Victorian couta boat restorer Tim Phillips. OWNERS The Viator was registered Port Fairy in 1940 and owned by G.J. Richards. It was also registered in Port Fairy 1941-1945 and owned by Jens “Peter” Petersen. “Brusher” Richards of Warrnambool and Port Fairy used it for fishing during the 1950’s. Peter Watson and his son also went fishing in Viator. Frank Ferrier, boat builder (and son of William Ferrier, hero for rescue of La Bella shipwreck survivors), also owned the Viator at one stage. Arthur Rogers owned Viator too. He sold it to Terry Pridmore and Wayne Moorefield. John Lindsay had been told that the Viator was stored in a paddock in Fairmont Avenue, Warrnambool, where it was gradually deteriorating. After discussing this with the Manager of Flagstaff Hill, Peter Ronald, John arranged to purchase the vessel at a very reasonable price from Pridmore in 1975. John Lindsay then donated Viator to Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village. In its very early days it was fondly referred to as “the old mail boat”. RESTORATION Shipwright Erik Mikkelsen soon started restoration on the Viator by after it arrived at Flagstaff Hill in 1975. (A photograph published by The Standard May 29, 1975 shows Erik Mikkelson working on the decking, watched by John Lindsay (Planning Board Chairman), Don Maxwell (Tourism Officer) and Leon Habel (Works Supervisor). Another photograph published by The Standard August 9, 1973, shows Arthur Hoey (Shipping Supervisor) working on a mast mounting. ) Maritime Museums of Australia awarded a grant in 2006 to Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village to assist with the restoration and renovation of the Viator. IMAGES Six colour photographs are available showing the Viator the 1970’s; two are of the Viator in Port Fairy in 1971, the other four are of the Viator at the Warrnambool Breakwater in 1972 after preparing her to sail. Other photographs published in The Standard in 1975 and 1976 show the restoration process underway.

Significance

The Viator received Heritage status with the Australia Maritime Museums Council in 2006 and is listed on the Australian Register of Historical Vessels (ARHV Number: HV000561) The Viator is of Local, State and National significance as one of the oldest remaining Victorian Barracouta boats. It is an early and rare example of this type of craft, one of the last local ‘couta boat. Due to its age, it is the most significant vessel in the fleet at Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, according to Julie Winzar, Warrnambool City Council, June 2007.

Inscriptions & Markings

Marked "Viator"

Doily

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Doily, from the 'Chamberlain Dale Lees Collection,. Oblong. Embroidered pink, blue and yellow flowers and green stems and lace frill.

Historical information

In the Words of donor, Betty Stone , … “These crocheted and embroidered articles cover a period of three generations- ie. Sarah (nee Chamberlain) Lees, Ann (nee Lees) Dale, and Daisy Elvena (nee Dale) Welsh. All three were accomplished needlewomen; also, both Sarah Lees (born 1844) and her daughter, Ann (b 1865) crocheted a wide variety of articles for use in their homes. A few examples of these items have survived the years.” Baby's Crocheted Bonnet This finely crocheted bonnet was made by Sarah (nee Chamberlain) Lees and is at least one hundred years old. Due to the condition of the original ribbon ties, they have been replaced with new ribbon. Table Runner with insertions, Tray cover and various Doylies, sauce bottle covers etc. These articles were made by Sarah Lees or her daughter Ann (nee Lees) Dale. Pair of Embroidered Pillow Shams, and various embroidered mats These items were made by my mother Daisy (nee Dale) Welsh. (NOTE: For additional information please refer to my book Pioneer and Places- A History of Three Warrnambool Pioneering Families ie. Chamberlain, Dale and Lees families)

Significance

This item is associated with families of Chamberlain, Dale and Lees. These families are listed in the "Pioneers' Register" for Warrnambool Township and Shire, 1835-1900, published by A.I.G.S. Warrnambool Branch.

Type Caster

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Trader Horn Type Caster, used for making new type when required.

Document

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Document, Ophthalmological Papers, booklet "Living Intrascleral Implants" by W.R. Angus, published in Transactions of the Ophthalmological Society of Australia 1965. Papers detail Dr Angus' surgical procedures for eye operations. Ten (10) pages

Historical information

These Ophthalmological Papers booklet, "Living Intrascleral Implants" were written by W.R. Angus and published in Transactions of the Ophthalmological Society of Australia 1965. The papers detail Dr Angus' surgical procedures for eye operations. These earlier papers were updated in 1969 and presented his final paper on Living Intrasclearal Cartilage Implants at the Inaugural Meeting of the Australian College of Ophthalmologists in Melbourne. This document was donated to Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village by the family of Doctor William Roy Angus, Surgeon and Oculist. It is part of the “W.R. Angus Collection” that includes historical medical equipment, surgical instruments and material once belonging to Dr Edward Ryan and Dr Thomas Francis Ryan, (both of Nhill, Victoria) as well as Dr Angus’ own belongings. The Collection’s history spans the medical practices of the two Doctors Ryan, from 1885-1926 plus that of Dr Angus, up until 1969. ABOUT THE “W.R.ANGUS COLLECTION” Doctor William Roy Angus M.B., B.S., Adel., 1923, F.R.C.S. Edin.,1928 (also known as Dr Roy Angus) was born in Murrumbeena, Victoria in 1901 and lived until 1970. He qualified as a doctor in 1923 at University of Adelaide, was Resident Medical Officer at the Royal Adelaide Hospital in 1924 and for a period was house surgeon to Sir (then Mr.) Henry Simpson Newland. Dr Angus was briefly an Assistant to Dr Riddell of Kapunda, then commenced private practice at Curramulka, Yorke Peninsula, SA, where he was physician, surgeon and chemist. In 1926, he was appointed as new Medical Assistant to Dr Thomas Francis Ryan (T.F. Ryan, or Tom), in Nhill, Victoria, where his experiences included radiology and pharmacy. In 1927 he was Acting House Surgeon in Dr Tom Ryan’s absence. Dr Angus had become engaged to Gladys Forsyth and they decided he would take time to further his studies overseas in the UK in 1927. He studied at London University College Hospital and at Edinburgh Royal Infirmary and in 1928, was awarded FRCS (Fellow from the Royal College of Surgeons), Edinburgh. He worked his passage back to Australia as a Ship’s Surgeon on the on the Australian Commonwealth Line’s T.S.S. Largs Bay. Dr Angus married Gladys in 1929, in Ballarat. (They went on to have one son (Graham 1932, born in SA) and two daughters (Helen (died 12/07/1996) and Berenice (Berry), both born at Mira, Nhill ) Dr Angus was a ‘flying doctor’ for the A.I.M. (Australian Inland Ministry) Aerial Medical Service in 1928 . The organisation began in South Australia through the Presbyterian Church in that year, with its first station being in the remote town of Oodnadatta, where Dr Angus was stationed. He was locum tenens there on North-South Railway at 21 Mile Camp. He took up this ‘flying doctor’ position in response to a call from Dr John Flynn; the organisation was later known as the Flying Doctor Service, then the Royal Flying Doctor Service. A lot of his work during this time involved dental surgery also. Between 1928-1932 he was surgeon at the Curramulka Hospital, Yorke Peninsula, South Australia. In 1933 Dr Angus returned to Nhill where he’d previously worked as Medical Assistant and purchased a share of the Nelson Street practice and Mira hospital from Dr Les Middleton one of the Middleton Brothers, the current owners of what was once Dr Tom Ryan’s practice. Dr L Middleton was House Surgeon to the Nhill Hospital 1926-1933, when he resigned. [Dr Tom Ryan’s practice had originally belonged to his older brother Dr Edward Ryan, who came to Nhill in 1885. Dr Edward saw patients at his rooms, firstly in Victoria Street and in 1886 in Nelson Street, until 1901. The Nelson Street practice also had a 2 bed ward, called Mira Private Hospital ). Dr Edward Ryan was House Surgeon at the Nhill Hospital 1884-1902 . He also had occasions where he successfully performed veterinary surgery for the local farmers too. Dr Tom Ryan then purchased the practice from his brother in 1901. Both Dr Edward and Dr Tom Ryan work as surgeons included eye surgery. Dr Tom Ryan performed many of his operations in the Mira private hospital on his premises. He too was House Surgeon at the Nhill Hospital 1902-1926. Dr Tom Ryan had one of the only two pieces of radiology equipment in Victoria during his practicing years – The Royal Melbourne Hospital had the other one. Over the years Dr Tom Ryan gradually set up what was effectively a training school for country general-practitioner-surgeons. Each patient was carefully examined, including using the X-ray machine, and any surgery was discussed and planned with Dr Ryan’s assistants several days in advance. Dr Angus gained experience in using the X-ray machine there during his time as assistant to Dr Ryan. Dr Tom Ryan moved from Nhill in 1926. He became a Fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons in 1927, soon after its formation, a rare accolade for a doctor outside any of the major cities. He remained a bachelor and died suddenly on 7th Dec 1955, aged 91, at his home in Ararat. Scholarships and prizes are still awarded to medical students in the honour of Dr T.F. Ryan and his father, Dr Michael Ryan, and brother, John Patrick Ryan. ] When Dr Angus bought into the Nelson Street premises in Nhill he was also appointed as the Nhill Hospital’s Honorary House Surgeon 1933-1938. His practitioner’s plate from his Nhill surgery states “HOURS Daily, except Tuesdays, Fridays and Saturday afternoons, 9-10am, 2-4pm, 7-8pm. Sundays by appointment”. This plate is now mounted on the doorway to the Port Medical Office at Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool. Dr Edward Ryan and Dr Tom Ryan had an extensive collection of historical medical equipment and materials spanning 1884-1926 and when Dr Angus took up practice in their old premises he obtained this collection, a large part of which is now on display at the Port Medical Office at Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village in Warrnambool. During his time in Nhill Dr Angus was involved in the merging of the Mira Hospital and Nhill Public Hospital into one public hospital and the property titles passed on to Nhill Hospital in 1939. In 1939 Dr Angus and his family moved to Warrnambool where he purchased “Birchwood,” the 1852 home and medical practice of Dr John Hunter Henderson, at 214 Koroit Street. (This property was sold in1965 to the State Government and is now the site of the Warrnambool Police Station. ). The Angus family was able to afford gardeners, cooks and maids; their home was a popular place for visiting dignitaries to stay whilst visiting Warrnambool. Dr Angus had his own silk worm farm at home in a Mulberry tree. His young daughter used his centrifuge for spinning the silk. Dr Angus was appointed on a part-time basis as Port Medical Officer (Health Officer) in Warrnambool and held this position until the 1940’s when the government no longer required the service of a Port Medical Officer in Warrnambool; he was thus Warrnambool’s last serving Port Medical Officer. (The duties of a Port Medical Officer were outlined by the Colonial Secretary on 21st June, 1839 under the terms of the Quarantine Act. Masters of immigrant ships arriving in port reported incidents of diseases, illness and death and the Port Medical Officer made a decision on whether the ship required Quarantine and for how long, in this way preventing contagious illness from spreading from new immigrants to the residents already in the colony.) Dr Angus was a member of the Australian Medical Association, for 35 years and surgeon at the Warrnambool Base Hospital 1939-1942, He served as a Surgeon Captain during WWII 1941-45, in Ballarat, Victoria, and in Bonegilla, N.S.W., completing his service just before the end of the war due to suffering from a heart attack. During his convalescence he carved an intricate and ‘most artistic’ chess set from the material that dentures were made from. He then studied ophthalmology at the Royal Melbourne Eye and Ear Hospital and created cosmetically superior artificial eyes by pioneering using the intrascleral cartilage. Angus received accolades from the Ophthalmological Society of Australasia for this work. He returned to Warrnambool to commence practice as an ophthalmologist, pioneering in artificial eye improvements. He was Honorary Consultant Ophthalmologist to Warrnambool Base Hospital for 31 years. He made monthly visits to Portland as a visiting surgeon, to perform eye surgery. He represented the Victorian South-West subdivision of the Australian Medical Association as its secretary between 1949 and 1956 and as chairman from 1956 to 1958. In 1968 Dr Angus was elected member of Spain’s Barraquer Institute of Barcelona after his research work in Intrasclearal cartilage grafting, becoming one of the few Australian ophthalmologists to receive this honour, and in the following year presented his final paper on Living Intrasclearal Cartilage Implants at the Inaugural Meeting of the Australian College of Ophthalmologists in Melbourne In his personal life Dr Angus was a Presbyterian and treated Sunday as a Sabbath, a day of rest. He would visit 3 or 4 country patients on a Sunday, taking his children along ‘for the ride’ and to visit with him. Sunday evenings he would play the pianola and sing Scottish songs to his family. One of Dr Angus’ patients was Margaret MacKenzie, author of a book on local shipwrecks that she’d seen as an eye witness from the late 1880’s in Peterborough, Victoria. In the early 1950’s Dr Angus, painted a picture of a shipwreck for the cover jacket of Margaret’s book, Shipwrecks and More Shipwrecks. She was blind in later life and her daughter wrote the actual book for her. Dr Angus and his wife Gladys were very involved in Warrnambool’s society with a strong interest in civic affairs. Their interests included organisations such as Red Cross, Rostrum, Warrnambool and District Historical Society (founding members), Wine and Food Society, Steering Committee for Tertiary Education in Warrnambool, Local National Trust, Good Neighbour Council, Housing Commission Advisory Board, United Services Institute, Legion of Ex-Servicemen, Olympic Pool Committee, Food for Britain Organisation, Warrnambool Hospital, Anti-Cancer Council, Boys’ Club, Charitable Council, National Fitness Council and Air Raid Precautions Group. He was also a member of the Steam Preservation Society and derived much pleasure from a steam traction engine on his farm. He had an interest in people and the community He and his wife Gladys were both involved in the creation of Flagstaff Hill, including the layout of the gardens. After his death (28th March 1970) his family requested his practitioner’s plate, medical instruments and some personal belongings be displayed in the Port Medical Office surgery at Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, and be called the “W. R. Angus Collection”.

Significance

The W.R. Angus Collection is significant for still being located at the site it is connected with, Doctor Angus being the last Port Medical Officer in Warrnambool. The collection of medical instruments and other equipment is culturally significant, being an historical example of medicine from late 19th to mid-20th century. Dr Angus assisted Dr Tom Ryan, a pioneer in the use of X-rays and in ocular surgery.

Document

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Seventeen discharge papers relating to H Dummer

Diary

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Diary belonging to Dr. Roy Angus, part of the W.R. Angus Collection, titled "Jan 5th 1966". Hand made diary made from manilla envelope, 16 pages cut to size and stapled together, postmark and address label are on the pages . Contains contacts and appointments written in blue pen. Inscriptions; postmark "Adelaide 22 Dec 1965 PAID" and address label "Mr. W.R. Angus, 214 Koroit St, Warrnambool"

Historical information

This pocket sized diary includes appointment times and addresses plus other personal notes made by Dr. Roy Angus (William.Roy Angus). It was made by Dr. Angus from and envelope addressed to him at his home and surgery in Warrnambool and postmarked 22nd Dec. 1965. The pages have been carefully shaped, corners rounded, and stapled together. The diary is dated for the beginning of the following year, January 5th 1966. It would be the perfect size to slip into a pocket or hide in the palm of the hand, ready to give a quick reminder of details. This diary was donated to Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village by the family of Doctor William Roy Angus, Surgeon and Oculist. It is part of the “W.R. Angus Collection” that includes historical medical equipment, surgical instruments and material once belonging to Dr Edward Ryan and Dr Thomas Francis Ryan, (both of Nhill, Victoria) as well as Dr Angus’ own belongings. The Collection’s history spans the medical practices of the two Doctors Ryan, from 1885-1926 plus that of Dr Angus, up until 1969. ABOUT THE “W.R.ANGUS COLLECTION” Doctor William Roy Angus M.B., B.S., Adel., 1923, F.R.C.S. Edin.,1928 (also known as Dr Roy Angus) was born in Murrumbeena, Victoria in 1901 and lived until 1970. He qualified as a doctor in 1923 at University of Adelaide, was Resident Medical Officer at the Royal Adelaide Hospital in 1924 and for a period was house surgeon to Sir (then Mr.) Henry Simpson Newland. Dr Angus was briefly an Assistant to Dr Riddell of Kapunda, then commenced private practice at Curramulka, Yorke Peninsula, SA, where he was physician, surgeon and chemist. In 1926, he was appointed as new Medical Assistant to Dr Thomas Francis Ryan (T.F. Ryan, or Tom), in Nhill, Victoria, where his experiences included radiology and pharmacy. In 1927 he was Acting House Surgeon in Dr Tom Ryan’s absence. Dr Angus had become engaged to Gladys Forsyth and they decided he would take time to further his studies overseas in the UK in 1927. He studied at London University College Hospital and at Edinburgh Royal Infirmary and in 1928, was awarded FRCS (Fellow from the Royal College of Surgeons), Edinburgh. He worked his passage back to Australia as a Ship’s Surgeon on the on the Australian Commonwealth Line’s T.S.S. Largs Bay. Dr Angus married Gladys in 1929, in Ballarat. (They went on to have one son (Graham 1932, born in SA) and two daughters (Helen (died 12/07/1996) and Berenice (Berry), both born at Mira, Nhill ) Dr Angus was a ‘flying doctor’ for the A.I.M. (Australian Inland Ministry) Aerial Medical Service in 1928 . The organisation began in South Australia through the Presbyterian Church in that year, with its first station being in the remote town of Oodnadatta, where Dr Angus was stationed. He was locum tenens there on North-South Railway at 21 Mile Camp. He took up this ‘flying doctor’ position in response to a call from Dr John Flynn; the organisation was later known as the Flying Doctor Service, then the Royal Flying Doctor Service. A lot of his work during this time involved dental surgery also. Between 1928-1932 he was surgeon at the Curramulka Hospital, Yorke Peninsula, South Australia. In 1933 Dr Angus returned to Nhill where he’d previously worked as Medical Assistant and purchased a share of the Nelson Street practice and Mira hospital from Dr Les Middleton one of the Middleton Brothers, the current owners of what was once Dr Tom Ryan’s practice. Dr L Middleton was House Surgeon to the Nhill Hospital 1926-1933, when he resigned. [Dr Tom Ryan’s practice had originally belonged to his older brother Dr Edward Ryan, who came to Nhill in 1885. Dr Edward saw patients at his rooms, firstly in Victoria Street and in 1886 in Nelson Street, until 1901. The Nelson Street practice also had a 2 bed ward, called Mira Private Hospital ). Dr Edward Ryan was House Surgeon at the Nhill Hospital 1884-1902 . He also had occasions where he successfully performed veterinary surgery for the local farmers too. Dr Tom Ryan then purchased the practice from his brother in 1901. Both Dr Edward and Dr Tom Ryan work as surgeons included eye surgery. Dr Tom Ryan performed many of his operations in the Mira private hospital on his premises. He too was House Surgeon at the Nhill Hospital 1902-1926. Dr Tom Ryan had one of the only two pieces of radiology equipment in Victoria during his practicing years – The Royal Melbourne Hospital had the other one. Over the years Dr Tom Ryan gradually set up what was effectively a training school for country general-practitioner-surgeons. Each patient was carefully examined, including using the X-ray machine, and any surgery was discussed and planned with Dr Ryan’s assistants several days in advance. Dr Angus gained experience in using the X-ray machine there during his time as assistant to Dr Ryan. Dr Tom Ryan moved from Nhill in 1926. He became a Fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons in 1927, soon after its formation, a rare accolade for a doctor outside any of the major cities. He remained a bachelor and died suddenly on 7th Dec 1955, aged 91, at his home in Ararat. Scholarships and prizes are still awarded to medical students in the honour of Dr T.F. Ryan and his father, Dr Michael Ryan, and brother, John Patrick Ryan. ] When Dr Angus bought into the Nelson Street premises in Nhill he was also appointed as the Nhill Hospital’s Honorary House Surgeon 1933-1938. His practitioner’s plate from his Nhill surgery states “HOURS Daily, except Tuesdays, Fridays and Saturday afternoons, 9-10am, 2-4pm, 7-8pm. Sundays by appointment”. This plate is now mounted on the doorway to the Port Medical Office at Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool. Dr Edward Ryan and Dr Tom Ryan had an extensive collection of historical medical equipment and materials spanning 1884-1926 and when Dr Angus took up practice in their old premises he obtained this collection, a large part of which is now on display at the Port Medical Office at Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village in Warrnambool. During his time in Nhill Dr Angus was involved in the merging of the Mira Hospital and Nhill Public Hospital into one public hospital and the property titles passed on to Nhill Hospital in 1939. In 1939 Dr Angus and his family moved to Warrnambool where he purchased “Birchwood,” the 1852 home and medical practice of Dr John Hunter Henderson, at 214 Koroit Street. (This property was sold in1965 to the State Government and is now the site of the Warrnambool Police Station. ). The Angus family was able to afford gardeners, cooks and maids; their home was a popular place for visiting dignitaries to stay whilst visiting Warrnambool. Dr Angus had his own silk worm farm at home in a Mulberry tree. His young daughter used his centrifuge for spinning the silk. Dr Angus was appointed on a part-time basis as Port Medical Officer (Health Officer) in Warrnambool and held this position until the 1940’s when the government no longer required the service of a Port Medical Officer in Warrnambool; he was thus Warrnambool’s last serving Port Medical Officer. (The duties of a Port Medical Officer were outlined by the Colonial Secretary on 21st June, 1839 under the terms of the Quarantine Act. Masters of immigrant ships arriving in port reported incidents of diseases, illness and death and the Port Medical Officer made a decision on whether the ship required Quarantine and for how long, in this way preventing contagious illness from spreading from new immigrants to the residents already in the colony.) Dr Angus was a member of the Australian Medical Association, for 35 years and surgeon at the Warrnambool Base Hospital 1939-1942, He served as a Surgeon Captain during WWII 1941-45, in Ballarat, Victoria, and in Bonegilla, N.S.W., completing his service just before the end of the war due to suffering from a heart attack. During his convalescence he carved an intricate and ‘most artistic’ chess set from the material that dentures were made from. He then studied ophthalmology at the Royal Melbourne Eye and Ear Hospital and created cosmetically superior artificial eyes by pioneering using the intrascleral cartilage. Angus received accolades from the Ophthalmological Society of Australasia for this work. He returned to Warrnambool to commence practice as an ophthalmologist, pioneering in artificial eye improvements. He was Honorary Consultant Ophthalmologist to Warrnambool Base Hospital for 31 years. He made monthly visits to Portland as a visiting surgeon, to perform eye surgery. He represented the Victorian South-West subdivision of the Australian Medical Association as its secretary between 1949 and 1956 and as chairman from 1956 to 1958. In 1968 Dr Angus was elected member of Spain’s Barraquer Institute of Barcelona after his research work in Intrasclearal cartilage grafting, becoming one of the few Australian ophthalmologists to receive this honour, and in the following year presented his final paper on Living Intrasclearal Cartilage Implants at the Inaugural Meeting of the Australian College of Ophthalmologists in Melbourne In his personal life Dr Angus was a Presbyterian and treated Sunday as a Sabbath, a day of rest. He would visit 3 or 4 country patients on a Sunday, taking his children along ‘for the ride’ and to visit with him. Sunday evenings he would play the pianola and sing Scottish songs to his family. One of Dr Angus’ patients was Margaret MacKenzie, author of a book on local shipwrecks that she’d seen as an eye witness from the late 1880’s in Peterborough, Victoria. In the early 1950’s Dr Angus, painted a picture of a shipwreck for the cover jacket of Margaret’s book, Shipwrecks and More Shipwrecks. She was blind in later life and her daughter wrote the actual book for her. Dr Angus and his wife Gladys were very involved in Warrnambool’s society with a strong interest in civic affairs. Their interests included organisations such as Red Cross, Rostrum, Warrnambool and District Historical Society (founding members), Wine and Food Society, Steering Committee for Tertiary Education in Warrnambool, Local National Trust, Good Neighbour Council, Housing Commission Advisory Board, United Services Institute, Legion of Ex-Servicemen, Olympic Pool Committee, Food for Britain Organisation, Warrnambool Hospital, Anti-Cancer Council, Boys’ Club, Charitable Council, National Fitness Council and Air Raid Precautions Group. He was also a member of the Steam Preservation Society and derived much pleasure from a steam traction engine on his farm. He had an interest in people and the community He and his wife Gladys were both involved in the creation of Flagstaff Hill, including the layout of the gardens. After his death (28th March 1970) his family requested his practitioner’s plate, medical instruments and some personal belongings be displayed in the Port Medical Office surgery at Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, and be called the “W. R. Angus Collection”.

Significance

The W.R. Angus Collection is significant for still being located at the site it is connected with, Doctor Angus being the last Port Medical Officer in Warrnambool. The collection of medical instruments and other equipment is culturally significant, being an historical example of medicine from late 19th to mid-20th century. Dr Angus assisted Dr Tom Ryan, a pioneer in the use of X-rays and in ocular surgery.

Inscriptions & Markings

Inscriptions; postmark "Adelaide 22 Dec 1965 PAID" and address label "Mr. W.R. Angus, 214 Koroit St, Warrnambool"

Photograph

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Black and White Photograph of the sailing ship Kobenhavn, has inscription on reverse side. SH 140 Ships I - L.

Greeting Card

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Greeting Card, Black and White Christmas Card with photographs of 2 sailing ships the Buckingham and the barquentine Lahaina.

Document

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Document, also referred to as a ‘word picture’ or ‘tablet’. Document is framed in glass and timber with gilt trim, handwritten with colour highlights. The penned letters rest on ruled guide lines, decorated where the lines intersect. Document outlines the establishment of Warrnambool as a Municipality in 1855 and Borough in 1863, with a population of 4,500 in 1875. It states geographic location, public buildings and institutions, harbor facilities and imports and exports for the year ending 30th June 1875. Two signatures "Thomas King" Mayor and "Henry T Read" Town Clerk. It shows the Coat of Arms of the Borough of Warrnambool.

Historical information

This document, also referred to as a word picture or Tablet, is framed in glass and timber with gilt trim, is handwritten with colour highlights. The penned letters rest on ruled guide lines, decorated where the lines intersect. The writing gives a description of the state of Borough of Warrnambool around 1875; its location, the area it covers, its population, Harbour and facilities, public buildings and institutions, imports and exports, financial worth, number of houses, connection with other areas of the Colony. A possible reason and origin for the document is found in an article ‘Link with US Exhibition’ from the Warrnambool Standard of December 19, 1981, written by local historian Bruce Morris. The writer mentions that the Warrnambool Borough Council met on 15th June 1875 and recorded a letter from G.C. Levey , secretary to the Melbourne group of commissioners representing the Colony, and Victoria in particular, for the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition of 1876. The letter asks Council to provide “statistics as to the population, social condition and commercial and industrial state of the district in and around Warrnambool.” A sub committee was formed for the project. The Mayor, Cr. Thomas King, wrote and signed a Report, presented to the council on July 14, 1875, in which “The Committee … begs to recommend that a Tablet be prepared setting for the particulars respecting the following matters relating to the Borough”. The matters included area, population, annual income, churches, schools, other public buildings, societies and companies, general description of houses erected, and returns of exports and imports for 1874. The minutes note that the Report was adopted. The article above also notes the opinion of Warrnambool printers who have examined the document; it is almost certainly to be an old lithograph, which means there could be several copies. It is possible that there may be a copy in Melbourne and another in Philadelphia. It is interesting to note that (1) the quoted location co-ordinates are for an “Unnamed Road, Packsaddle NSW 2880, Australia”, and that the DMS co-ordinates for Warrnambool’s Council Offices differ, being 38.23.9.12 South, 142.28.52.887. (2) the date for “Exports and Imports for the Year Ending 30th June 1875” is different to the period mentioned by Cr. King in the sub committee’s Report of recommendation “returns of exports and imports for 1874”. The information required to have the figures for the end of June 1875 would need to have been compiled very quickly for the Tablet to be ready for the opening of the Philadelphia Exhibition on 10 May 1876. The document/certificate shows the following – - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - “Victoria Australia, Borough of Warrnambool. Latitude, 30.24.50 South, Longitude 142.32 East The Principal Port in the Western District of the Colony and the Centre of its Choicest Agricultural Lands. Established a Municipality in 1855, and Created a Borough 1863. Population in 1875 4,500. Warrnambool is the nearest Port to Melbourne on the Western Seaboard, being about 160 miles distant. Coaches run to and from the Metropolis daily, in connexion [connection] with the Railway of Geelong and Steamers belonging to Local Companies sail between Melbourne, Warrnambool, Belfast [renamed Port Fairy], and Portland several times weekly. The Harbour is known as Lady Bay, and is partially protected by a reef of rocks stretching from the mouth of the Hopkins River. The formation of a Breakwater has been decided upon by the Government, to extend 600 yards, at an estimated cost of £100,000. There are two substantial Jetties, one of 800 and the other of 600 feet in length. The former is connected with the Town by means of a Tramroad, along which Goods, inwards & outwards, are conveyed, & the latter has been constructed solely for the purpose of facilitating the transit of material for the formation of the Breakwater. In addition to the trade of the Borough and District, the principal Townships up country receive their supplies from Melbourne and ship their exports through Warrnambool. Potatoes form the staple produce of the district, and the richness of the soil can be estimated by the fact that the Government Statistics for 1875 give as the average yield a return of Seven Tons to the acre. Several thousand acres between Warrnambool and Tower Hill are now being laid down in Potatoes by Tenants who have leased the lands at rates up to £5 per acre for the season 1875-6. Wool, Tallow, hides &c are also largely exported, while the shipments of all descriptions of Farm Produce are annually increasing. Area of Borough, 3362 Acres. Net Annual Value £27,000. Annual Revenue £5,500. Number of Houses in Borough 800. Public Buildings and Institutions Churches. Church of England, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Wesleyan, Congregational and Baptist. Schools. Three State Schools, average attendance nearly 1000. New Building in course of erection. Several private establishments. Banks. Bank of Australasia, Bank of Victoria, National Bank, Colonial Bank and Savings Bank. Public Buildings. Court house, Custom house, Post & Telegraph Offices, Survey & Land Offices, Shire £, Town Hall, Mechanics Institute, Volunteer Orderly Room, Odd Fellows Hall, Hospital & Benevolent Asylum, Temperance Hall &c. Companies & Societies. Steam Navigation Co, Woolen Mill Co, Gas Co, Racing Club, Amateur Turf Club, Agricultural Society, Farmers’ Club, Cricket Club, Anglers’ Society, Building Society, Freemasons Odd Fellows, Foresters, Druids, Hibernians. Protestant Alliance, Rechabites, Sons of Temperance, &c, Fire Brigade &c. --- Exports and Imports for the Year Ending 30th June 1875 –-- --Exports Total Tonnage 27,800 (Calculated at the Current Warrnambool Market Prices) Potatoes Wool Wheat Barley Hides Skins Fowls Butter Cheese Eggs Tallow Leather Ale Pigs Sheep Sundries --Imports 13,000 Tons Of the Estimated Value of £520,000 Total Tonnage of Exports and Imports 40m900 Tons, Value £806,627 Passenger Travels, to ad from Warrnambool during year, 10,000 persons Revenue from all sources paid through Warrnambool Sub Treasury From 1860 to June 1875 £1, 292, 300 Thomas King [signed] Mayor Henry T Read [signed] Town Clerk” - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Significance

The document is of historical, social, economic and local significance in that it summarises activities, business, community, trade, travel and government at a point in time in Warrnambool’s history – 30th June 1875.

Inscriptions & Markings

Signatures - "Thomas King" Mayor and "Henry T Read" Town Clerk. Warrnambool Coat of Arms; “British Coat of Arms, above sailing vessel and sheaf of wheat in sun, motto “By these we flourish” and around circumference “Borough of Warrnambool 1855”

Bugle

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Bugle, silver, with brass mouthpiece. Presented to the Warrnambool Volunteer Corps. on 18-6-1861 by the Warrnambool Ladies. It is made from long tube of metal, narrow at the mouth end and gradually flaring to a wider at the bell shape at the other end. The tube is shaped into 3 bends. The front of the bell has an elaborate design of a ribbon banner attached above an oval floral wreath enclosing an inscription. The outer rim of the bell has an impressed ancient Greek geometric border.

Historical information

A bugle is a simple, light weight, musical instrument belonging to the ‘brass’ group of instruments and played by blowing air into the mouthpiece. A variety of notes can be obtained by changing the shape of the bugler’s lips when blowing – there are no valves. The flared shape of the tube gives a very mellow sound. Bugles have been used for hundreds of years for communicating instructions, particularly in battles, and announcements such as calls to assemble and various other routines of the day, particularly for infantry and military units. Historic records show that a bugle was used for military signals at Hanover in 1758. In more modern times the bugle is most often used for ceremonial purposes, and as a symbol in the Rifles corps. This beautiful silver bugle has been described by one reporter as “… of pure silver, and is a most exquisite piece of colonial workmanship”. It was presented to the Warrnambool Rifle Volunteers by Lady Helpman, on behalf of the Ladies of the District of Warrnambool, on June 18th, 1861. Lady Helpman’s husband, Captain Benjamin Franklin Helpman, was appointed as Warrnambool Harbourmaster that same year and performed the role until 1869. In 1869 he also became a collector of Customs. The gift of this silver bugle was presented to commanding officer of the Warrnambool Volunteer Rifle Corps., Captain Bushe, who then passed it on to the Warrnambool Volunteer Band’s Bugler Corrigan. On 11th August 2016, in a well-attended ceremony at Flagstaff Hill, the Australian Army handed over custodianship of two very significant historical items - the 1885 W. Clarke Trophy and the 1861 Warrnambool Ladies Silver Bugle – to Warrnambool City Council, and Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, who proudly received them. Both the W. Clarke Trophy and the silver bugle are strongly connected to the Warrnambool Garrison, a Victorian State Heritage Listed site at Flagstaff Hill. Below is the transcription of the very inspiring and emotional presentation ceremony of 1861, as reported in The Warrnambool Examiner, Friday 21st June 1861 … PRESENTATION OF A SILVER BUGLE TO THE WARRNAMBOOL RIFLE VOLUNTEERS When we chronicled last month the enthusiastic manner in which the Warrnambool Volunteers celebrated the natal day of their beloved sovereign [Queen Victoria born 24th May 1819], we were correct in saying that it was the most successful gathering in this town, but successful as it was, it must give way to the demonstration on Tuesday last [18th June 1861], when the ladies of Warrnambool presented a silver bugle to the corps. The weather during the fore part of the day was very threatening, and it was fully anticipated the ceremony would have to be held in the Temperance Hall, which was prepared in readiness for the occasion. Whether, however, Captain Bushe had made special arrangements with the clerk of the weather, we cannot say, but certain it is that just before the volunteers mustered “Old Sol” “turned out” in fine style, and kept a bright face during the remainder of the day. At two o’clock, p.m., the company assembled in front of the Municipal Council Chambers, and, preceded by the band, Captain Bushe, and Mr. Drill Instructor Bernard, and accompanied by a large concourse of spectators, marched down Timor Street to the parade ground, which presented an exceedingly gay appearance. A large arch of flags was erected on a rising part of the ground, and a tent for the ladies, and refreshment tents afforded shelter in case the weather should have been unpropitious. The volunteers were then put through various manoeuvers, including forming into squares, marching and counter-marching to various points, indicated by flags, and each time on passing the band, the musicians played popular airs. After some time being spent in this manner, the volunteers were marched up in front of the ladies’ tent, were formed in a hollow square, and presented arms. At this point of the proceedings the spectators at the rear of the volunteers kept pressing forward with so much ardour, that it was almost impossible for the latter to keep in perfect line. Mrs. Helpman, lady of Lieutenant Helpman R.N., now appeared on a platform in front of the tent, accompanied by Mrs. Breton, lady of Dr. Breton, the surgeon to the corps. Mrs. Helpman then proceeded to read the following address, after which she handed the bugle to Captain Bushe, who in turn handed the beautiful present to Bugler Corrigan. The instrument is of pure silver, and is a most exquisite piece of colonial workmanship: - - - - Captain Bushe, Officers, Non-commissioned Officers, and Gentlemen of the Warrnambool Rifle Company. It is my pleasing duty to convey to you in the name of the ladies of this District their high appreciation of your patriotism as Citizen Soldiers of Victoria. I feel proud of the honor of being commissioned this day to present you in their names this SILVER BUGLE, inscribed with the motto – “Armed for the Right,” feeling confident that should its notes ever summon you to the defence of the land of our adoption, it will ever be found the rallying point for you, the national guardians of our “Hearths and Altars.” The anniversary of a glorious victory obtained by a British army, in defence of the liberties of the World, has been chosen for this occasion, as calling to mind the valor of our sires, and as showing that “Armed for the Right,” you must always be triumphant. [Battle of Waterloo, Belgium June 18, 1815, defeat Napoleon Bonaparte.] I now commit this bugle to your charge, relying upon your Patriotism, Valor, and Honor. “May God protect Her Majesty.” - - - - After a short pause Captain Bushe, with considerable emotion, replied as follows: - - - - To you, Mrs. Helpman, and the ladies in whose names you have presented to us this bugle, on behalf of the Warrnambool Volunteers, I return my sincere thanks. A gift as handsome and so valuable reflects honor on the givers as well as the receivers, and tells far better than ever could words of mine of your good taste, your liberality, and your kindness. That so many fair women should pay us this compliment is indeed something to be proud of, and as a mark of your approbation, and as a graceful recognition of our services in arming for the defence of our Queen and adopted country, will, I trust, make us more steadfast in the cause we have espoused, and induce others to follow in our footsteps. The confidence with which you rely on our patriotism, our courage, and our readiness to defend you, I hope, will never be misplaced, and if the time should ever come when the notes of this bugle will be heard amidst the din of war, then, I am confident (and I say it without boasting), that the Warrnambool Volunteers – “Armed for the Right” – will be found manfully fighting, whilst life remains in them; and, if needs be, laying down that life in defence of their homes, their liberties, and those that are most dear to them. Ladies, this day is one that will long be remembered by us; ‘twill be, as it were, a halting place in memory, to which we will look back with gratification, and with pride; and, if the day of actual warfare I have just spoken of should arrive, then will be recollection of it, and of the bright eyes now beaming on us, nerve us to deeds of daring and of valor – deeds that will make us still more deserving of your esteem - more worthy of your reliance and your trust. Again, ladies, for myself and the members of my company, I thank you. - - - - Three hearty cheers were given by the volunteers for the ladies, and the former were allowed to ground arms and disperse for a few minutes. The assembly was soon sounded and briskly the volunteers responded to the “call of duty.” They were again exercised by Mr. Bernard, and delighted the spectators by firing in “extended skirmishing” order. The scene at this juncture looked peculiarly interesting and gay. The sun was shining out most beautifully. In the centre of the ground were some hundreds of spectators, while on the heights the volunteers appeared at various intervals engaged in advancing and retiring, and apparently in close engagement with an enemy. We much regret that no photographist was on the ground with an apparatus, for such a picture would have been worth taking, and would have formed an elegant souvenir of the day. “All things must have an end,” and at last the volunteers assembled in sections of four deep, and in that order marched to the front of the Council Chambers, where they were dismissed, each man impressed with the pleasant satisfaction that he had “done his duty.” In the evening a re-union took place at Wall’s Family Hotel, at which upwards of fifty ladies and gentlemen were present. The affair was quite impromptu, not a word being spoken of it until the afternoon, and yet it was the happiest party we have seen in the district. Everybody appeared determined to enjoy themselves, and the arrangements for the supper &c., were most creditable to Host Wall, who gave an excellent spread, considering the short time at his disposal. The company did not separate until about four o’clock in the morning. In concluding our remarks we cannot but compliment the Warrnambool Volunteers on their appearance, even although we may be open to the charge of egotism, seeing that we belong to the corps also. The great improvement which the volunteers show is to be attributed greatly to the untiring exertions of Mr. Drill Instructor Bernard. Since he arrived in this District, the corps has almost doubled itself, and bids fair soon to become the leading one in the Western District. The number is now 85, including officers, band, &c. On Tuesday, the total number on the ground was 63, a fact which speaks well for the corps. The band at present consists of eleven performers, wo are rapidly improving under the fostering care of Bugler Corrigan, and we trust next summer the ladies of this district will be agreeably entertained by the performances of the Warrnambool Volunteer Band. [REFERENCES: “1860 Warrnambool” photograph text, Picture Victoria, Corangamite Libraries http://www.picturevictoria.vic.gov.au/site/corangamite/wmbl/7756.html; Bugle, Wikipedia; Presentation of a Silver Bugle, Warrnambool Examiner, 21st June 1861; Helpman, Benjamin Franklin (1814-1874); Australian Dictionary of Biography http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/helpman-benjamin-franklin-2176]

Significance

The Silver Bugle is locally significant to the community of Warrnambool for its connection to the Warrnambool Volunteer Rifle Corps., which formed part of the original Warrnambool Garrison to protect the Warrnambool Harbour. The site of the 1888 Warrnambool Garrison and Fortifications is Victorian State Heritage Listed significant for its intact and operational nature, and is one of the best preserved pieces of Victoria’s early colonial heritage.

Inscriptions & Markings

On ribbon banner “Armed for the Right”. Within the wreath “TO THE / WARRNAMBOOL / VOLUNTEER RIFLE COMPANY / this tribute of due appreciation / is presented by / THE LADIES / of the District / Warrnambool 18th June / 1861”

Block

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

This is what remains of a block, shackle and wire from the wreck of the sailing ship “Newfield”. The object is heavily encrusted. The exterior (cheeks) of the block is missing. The disc of the block has a channel part way around its face, about 2 cm from the edge. Two long, narrow plates are joined onto the centre of the disc’s face with a bolt through the centre. The other ends of the two plates join onto the elbow of the shackle. The elbow of the shackle is also joined onto a rod. At the other end of the rod can be seen the ends of thick wire strands.

Historical information

These remains of a block, shackle and wire are from the sailing ship Newfield. This would have been one of hundreds of blocks and shackles used in the rigging of the Newfield. The Newfield was a three-masted iron and steel barque, built in Dundee, Scotland, in 1889 by Alexander Stephen and Sons. It was owned by the Newfield Ship Company in 1890 and later that year It was registered in Liverpool to owners Brownells and Co. The Newfield left Sharpness, Scotland, on 28th May 1892 with a crew of 25 under the command of Captain George Scott and on 1st June left Liverpool. She was bound for Brisbane, Australia, with a cargo of 1850 tons of fine rock salt, the main export product of Sharpness. At about 9pm on 28th August 1892, in heavy weather, Captain Scott sighted, between heavy squalls, the Cape Otway light on the mainland of Victoria but, due to a navigational error (the ship’s chronometers were wrong), he assumed it to be the Cape Wickham light on King Island, some 40 miles south. He altered his course to the north, expecting to enter Bass Strait. The ship was now heading straight for the south west Victorian coast. At about 1:30am the Newfield ran aground on a reef about 100 yards from shore and one mile east of Curdie’s Inlet, Peterborough. The ship struck heavily three times before grounding on an inner shoal with 6 feet of water in the holds. Rough sea made the job of launching lifeboats very difficult. The first two lifeboats launched by the crew were smashed against the side of the ship and some men were crushed or swept away. The third lifeboat brought eight men to shore. It capsized when the crew tried to return it to the ship for further rescue The rescue was a difficult operation. The Port Campbell Rocket Crew arrived and fired four rocket lines, none of which connected with the ship. Peter Carmody, a local man, volunteered to swim about one mile off shore to the ship with a line to guide the fourth and final lifeboat safely to shore. He was assisted by James McKenzie and Gerard Irvine. Seventeen men survived the shipwreck but the captain and eight of his crew perished. The Newfield remained upright on the reef with sails set for a considerable time as the wind slowly ripped the canvas to shreds and the sea battered the hull to pieces. The Marine Board inquiry found the wreck was caused by a "one man style of navigation" and that the Captain had not heeded the advice of his crew. According to Jack Loney ‘… when the drama was over . . the Newfield was deserted except for the Captain’s dog and two pigs.’ Peter Carmody was awarded the Bramley-Moore medal by the Liverpool Shipwreck and Humane Society for Saving Life at Ssea, which he received by mail on January 21st 1893. The medal and a letter of congratulations were donated to Flagstaff Hill Maritime Museum by Peter Carmody’s grand-daughter Norma Bracken and her son Stuart Bracken on 25th May 2006. The block and shackle joins other items in the Newfield collection.

Significance

Flagstaff Hill’s collection of artefacts from the Newfield is significant for its association with the shipwreck Newfield, which is listed on the Victorian Heritage Registry. The collection is significant because of the relationship between the objects. The Newfield collection is archaeologically significant as the remains of an international cargo ship. The Newfield collection is historically significant for representing aspects of Victoria’s shipping history and its association with the shipwreck.

Cannon

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Cannon. 80 Pounder Rifled Muzzle Loading (RML) Gun on iron carriage and slide, installed in the Battery at Flagstaff Hill’s Fortifications.. Made in 1866 at the Royal Gun Factory (R-G-F), Woolich, England. Gun Reg No - 23. Flagstaff Hill Garrison Gun 1 (Gun No. 1) Insignia of the Royal Engineers, and the weight of the gun, stamped on top of the gun’s barrel. There is a brass plate on the side of the gun with the details of 1987 restoration.

Historical information

In the years following the Crimean War (1854-1857J) there was a great concern in the Colony that Imperial Russia would attempt an invasion. Coastal defences in the colony of Victoria were greatly strengthened by the Government as a result. Warrnambool was originally protected by cannons at Cannon Hill, approximately 1 kilometer west of the Flagstaff Hill Fortifications. These cannons included two 1866 guns, both 80 Pound Rifled Muzzle Loaders (RML) purchased by Victoria’s Colonial Government. They were part of a shipment of 26 such guns sent from England in December 1866. They are registered as No. 23 (80cwt-2qr-0lbs) - Gun 1, and No.13 (81cwt-1qr-12lbs) - Gun 2. They were cast at the Royal Gun Factory, Woolwich Arsenal, in 1866 and have a 6.3 inch bore. Both barrels carry the Royal Cypher of Queen Victoria, Insignia of the Royal Engineers, within the Garter and Motto surmounted by the Crown, with the Royal Cypher of Queen Victoria within the Garter (letters in centre “VR”, motto “HONI SOIT QUI MAL Y PENSE”, "Shame be to him who thinks evil of it."). The guns were originally supplied with wooden carriages. (The Royal Arsenal at Woolwich, England, was established eleven years after the Restoration of King Charles II. It was the principal supplier of armaments to the British and Empire Governments. At the height of its operations during World War One the factory covered 1300 acres and employed very nearly 80,000 workers. Woolwich was the Headquarters of the Royal Artillery since the raising of that Regiment in 1716. The Arsenal was closed in the late 1960’s.) These two cannons were transferred to the Warrnambool Garrison Artillery Battery Fortifications erected at Flagstaff Hill in 1887 as part of Victoria’s Coastal Defences. The original wooden carriages were subsequently replaced with the present iron garrison carriages in 1888. They are a “C” pivot. The ‘racers’ or curved track set into the floor of the gun emplacement (which enabled the guns to be traversed more quickly) are as specified for guns up to 10 inch, being of wrought iron 2.78 inches wide. A temporary third gun, now no longer on Flagstaff Hill’s site, was a 5 inch Rifled Breech Loading (BL) Armstrong gun mounted on an Elswick hydro pneumatic disappearing carriage It was faster to load and fire than the 80 pound RMLs and its arrival spelt the end of the older 80 pound guns’ useful life, apart from being used for practice sessions. The 5 inch BL gun was the main defensive weapon of the Warrnambool Battery until the Battery was downgraded in importance and the gun was recalled to Melbourne in 1910. The State of Victoria took over the ownership of the guns at the time of Australian Federation in 1901. In about 1901/1902 the Garrison Battery was converted to the Warrnambool Battery of the Australian Field Artillery (No 4 Field Battery). It was equipped with 4.7 inch naval guns mounted on field carriages. They were now a mobile unit but continued to use the Warrnambool Garrison area at Flagstaff Hill for practice. When the Fortifications were declared obsolete the two 80 Pounder RML were relocated to Cannon Hill in 1910. On the outbreak of World War One the 4.7 inch guns were recalled to Melbourne, and the Battery was disbanded. Most of the personnel probably re-enlisted in the local 4th Australian Light Horse Regiment. The two 80 Pounder RML were moved back to the Fortifications in 1973. They were both fully restored by Army First Year Apprentices at the Ordinance Factory in Bendigo in time for the centenary year of the fortifications in 1987. The guns are capable of firing 80 pound (32.3kg) armour piercing exploding shells 3.65kms out to sea. They were original manned by volunteers before a paid Garrison was established. Now the Guns are again fired by volunteers on Special Event days. Since restoration the Gun Number 1 had been fired on a regular basis but Gun Number 2 hadn’t been fired since the mid 1990’s. In April 2015 Gun Number 2 was serviced in preparation for the firing of both cannons on the ANZAC Centenary commemorations on April 25th 2015. Other guns from the original Cannon Hill location were obsolete by the time the 1887 Warrnambool Garrison Artillery Battery was built. These guns are (1) a 32 Pounder Muzzle Loading Smooth Bore (SB) cast in 1813 at the famous Carron Foundry, number 80837 and now located in the Warrnambool Botanic Gardens (2) a 68 Pounder Muzzle Loading Smooth Bore cast in 1861 at the equally august Low Moor Foundry, number 10310 and now located on the lawn area at the entrance to Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village. Both of these guns are mounted on their original wooden garrison carriages. There are only seven 32 Pounder SB made by Carron and fifteen 68 Pounder SB made at Low Moor known to exist in the State of Victoria (Conservation Management Plan for Victorian Guns and Cannon, South Western Victoria, May 2008, ref W/F/04)

Significance

The Warrnambool Garrison has been added to the Victorian Heritage Register H1250 “for its intact battery and guns, a strong reminder of Victoria’s wealth and determination to protect itself from the perceived threat of invasion in the 1880’s.” The City of Warrnambool is one of several custodians of a collection of artillery pieces of heritage significance at a state, national and international level. These pieces are directly related to the defence of south-west Victoria in the 19th century. The care and preservation come under the Heritage Act 1995.

Inscriptions & Markings

Stamped on axle cover on side of barrel “R-G-F / No 23 / 1866”. Stamped into the metal on top of the barrel, Insignia of the Royal Engineers; Garter and Motto “HONI SOIT QUI MAL Y PENSE”, surmounted by the Crown, with the Royal Cypher of Queen Victoria “VR” within the Garter. Also stamped on top of the gun are 2 inward pointing arrows above the weight ”81-2-0”. Brass plate “RESTORATION / BY / FIRST YEAR / APPRENTICES / ORDANANCE FACTORY / BENDIGO 1987”

Menu

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Menu, or Bill of Fare, on cream coloured stationery from the sailing vessel “Schomberg”. Two rectangular pieces of paper, each bears the printed words “Black Ball Line of Australian Packets, Bill of Fare, Ship, Schomberg”, a printed symbol of the Black Ball line (a black ball on a red flag) and a decorative border. Both pages are handwritten, in similar but different sized writing, with a Bill of Fare and a date, Page (1) dated May 10th 1856 and (2) dated May 12th ’56, (Both dates are AFTER the Schomberg sank in December 26th 1855.) Both pages have three fold lines spaced across their width. To be used for the return voyage.

Historical information

A “Bill of Fare” is a menu or list of food offered for a meal. This Bill of Fare from the sailing ship Schomberg is handwritten in pen in hard-to-read script on the printed pages specifically for the Schomberg ship, of the Black Ball Line of Australian Packets. (‘Packets’ were vessels that had a regular trade run of cargo, passengers and mail; the sailing ship Schomberg was designed for long voyages between England and Australia.) These menus posed a puzzle as they have the handwritten dates of, May 10 and 12, 1856, by which time the Schomberg had sunk (she sunk on December 26, 1855). The donor of these pages of Bill of Fare is a stamp collector from Melbourne. He came across the menus in a package that he bought in 1980 at a stamp auction in Tasmania. He decided to give the menus to Flagstaff Hill this year during his annual family holiday in Warrnambool. A 1981 newspaper article about this donation included an interview with Flagstaff Hill’s curator Mr Peter Ronald, who said that the stationery of these menus is genuine. He went on to say that there would have been much stationery printed for use on the Schomberg although she sank on her maiden voyage. These menus could have been written at a dated late because the surplus Schomberg stationery could have been used for menus on other ships. We will probably never be sure of the answer but none-the-less the pages are still connected to the Schomberg. Below is what we believe the menu consists of although some of the writing is indecipherable - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (first menu) Roast Mutton Boiled Mutton? Ox Tail Mulligatawny? Or possibly Ox Tail Vegetables? Mutton Pies? ------------------------------- Vegetables Potatoes ---------------------------------- Dessert Fruit Puddings? Saturday May 10, 1856 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - AND - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (second menu) Boiled Mutton Roast Mutton? Roast Geese? Ox Tail?? Calves Head Broth? ------------------------------- Vegetables Potatoes ------------------------------- Dessert Tarts? Rice Pudding? ?...Maids?? Monday May 12, 1856 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Background of “SCHOMBERG” When SCHOMBERG was launched in July, 1855, she was considered the “Noblest ship that ever floated on water.” SCHOMBERG’s owners, the Black Ball Line (one of three companies by that name), commissioned the ship for their fleet of passenger liners. She was built by Alexander Hall of Aberdeen, UK at a cost of £43,103. She was constructed with 3 skins: one planked fore and aft, and two diagonally planked, fastened together with screw threaded trunnels (wooden rails). Her first class accommodation was luxurious: velvet pile carpets; large mirrors; rosewood; birds-eye maple; mahogany; soft furnishings of gold satin damask; an oak-lined library; and a piano. Overall she had accommodation for 1000 passengers. SCHOMBERG’s 34 year old master, Captain James ‘Bully’ Forbes, had promised Melbourne in 60 days at the launch, "with or without the help of God." James Nicol Forbes was born in Aberdeen in 1821 and rose to fame with his record-breaking voyages on the famous Black Ball Line ships MARCO POLO and LIGHTNING. In 1852 in the MARCO POLO he made the record passage from London to Melbourne in 68 days. There were 53 deaths on the voyage but the great news was of the record passage by the master. In 1954 Captain Forbes took the clipper LIGHTNING to Melbourne in 76 days and back in 63 days, this was never beaten by a sailing ship. He often drove his crew and ship to breaking point to beat his own records. He cared little for the comfort of the passengers. On this, the SCHOMBERG’s maiden voyage, he was going to break records. SCHOMBERG departed Liverpool on her maiden voyage on 6 October 1855 flying the sign “Sixty Days to Melbourne”. She departed with 430 passengers and 3000 tons cargo including iron rails and equipment intended to build the Melbourne to Geelong Railway as well as a bridge over the Yarra from Melbourne to Hawthorn. She also carried a cow for fresh milk, pens for fowls and pigs, and 90,000 gallons of water for washing and drinking. SCHOMBERG also carried 17,000 letters and 31,800 newspapers. The ship and cargo was insured for $300,000, a fortune for the time. The winds were poor as she sailed across the equator, slowing SCHOMBERG’s journey considerably. Land was first sighted on Christmas Day, at Cape Bridgewater near Portland, and Captain Forbes followed the coastline towards Melbourne. Forbes was said to be playing cards when called by the Third Mate Henry Keen, who reported land about 3 miles off. Due in large part to Forbes regarding a card game as more important than his ship, SCHOMBERG eventually ran aground on a sand spit near Curdie's Inlet (about 56 km west of Cape Otway) on 26 December 1855, 78 days after leaving Liverpool. The sand spit and the currents were not marked on Forbes’s map. Overnight, the crew launched a lifeboat to find a safe place to land the ship’s passengers. The scouting party returned to SCHOMBERG and advised Forbes that it was best to wait until morning because the rough seas could easily overturn the small lifeboats. The ship’s Chief Officer spotted the steamer SS QUEEN at dawn and signalled it. The master of the SS QUEEN approached the stranded vessel and all of SCHOMBERG’s passengers and crew were able to disembark safely. The SCHOMBERG was lost and with her, Forbes’ reputation. The Black Ball Line’s Melbourne agent sent a steamer to retrieve the passengers’ baggage from the SCHOMBERG. Other steamers helped unload her cargo until the weather changed and prevented the salvage teams from accessing the ship. Later one plunderer found a case of Wellington boots, but alas, all were for the left foot! Local merchants Manifold & Bostock bought the wreck and cargo, but did not attempt to salvage the cargo still on board the ship. They eventually sold it on to a Melbourne businessman and two seafarers. In 1864 salvage efforts were abandoned after two men drowned when they tried to reach SCHOMBERG. Parts of the SCHOMBERG were washed ashore on the south island of New Zealand in 1870, nearly 15 years after the wreck. The wreck of the SCHOMBERG lies in 825 metres of water. Although the woodwork is mostly disintegrated, the shape of the ship can still be seen due to the remaining railway irons, girders and the ship’s frame. A variety of goods and materials can be seen surrounding the wreck, by divers. Flagstaff Hill holds many items salvaged from the SCHOMBERG including a ciborium (in which a diamond ring was concealed in concretion), communion set, ship fittings and equipment, personal effects, a lithograph, tickets and photograph from the SCHOMBERG.

Significance

These Bills of Fare are significant due to their connection to Flagstaff Hill’s collection of artefacts from the Schomberg, which is significant for its association with the Victorian Heritage Registered shipwreck S612. The collection is primarily significant because of the relationship between the objects, as together they have a high potential to interpret the story of the Schomberg. The Schomberg collection is archaeologically significant as the remains of an international passenger ship. The shipwreck collection is historically significant for representing aspects of Victoria’s shipping history and its potential to interpret sub-theme 1.5 of Victoria’s Framework of Historical Themes (living with natural processes). The collection is also historically significant for its association with the shipwreck and the ship, which was designed to be fastest and most luxurious of its day. The Schomberg collection meets the following criteria for assessment: Criterion A: Importance to the course, or pattern, of Victoria’s cultural history. Criterion B: Possession of uncommon, rare or endangered aspects of Victoria’s cultural history. Criterion C: Potential to yield information that will contribute to an understanding of Victoria’s cultural history.

Inscriptions & Markings

Printed on the pages ““BLACK BALL LINE OF AUSTRALIAN PACKETS.” “Bill of Fare, / SHIP / “SCHOMBERG”.” Handwritten list of food, and on one page “Saturday May 10 1856” and on the other page “Monday May 12”

First Aid Case

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

First Aid Case, portable, Sanax First Aid Case. First Aid kit in strong black cardboard carry case with metal reinforced corners, metal hinges on lid, metal catch and leather carry handle. Inside lid is a vertical strap with narrow gap behind it. Base is divided into two compartments. Manufactured by Sanax, Fitzroy, Melbourne, C. 1930-1939 Contents include "Sanax" First Aid instructions booklet, 2 leaflets, metal kidney dish enamelled in white with black trim on edge, green plastic or Bakelite eye bath, eye lotion, Tannafax tannic acid jelly, Sal Volitile, Kuraburn, Iodine, Argyrol, ACHE tablets, absorbent cotton in cardboard box, gauze bandage, and UNKNOWN wrapped bottle.

Historical information

This small, portable 1930’s Sanax First Aid Case has been strongly constructed, with corners reinforced with metal to take knocks and bumps as it was transported to the site of an emergency. Having these supplies organised into a kit made them easily accessible and reduces time to take them to the site of the accident. It was possibly designed for use in factories because the booklet in the case states that the kit complies with “Part 1, Victorian Factories Regulations”. The text of the printed brand “Sanax First Aid Case” is right-way up when the case stands vertically on its hinged side. In modern times people are well aware of the importance of quick treatment when accident and injury occur. However, before the first commercial First Aid Kit was made by Johnson & Johnson in 1888, people had little knowledge about treating injuries and lacked information about suitable supplies to keep on hand for emergencies. They were often unaware of how to help in that critical time before the doctor or other assistance arrived, a particularly important time for the many people living in remote areas. A quote from Johnson’s & Johnson’s 1888 price list explains “It is a fact, which is everywhere being recognized, that many lives are lost and much suffering entailed in such accidents on account of the lack of the simple but necessary articles required to afford prompt assistance to the wounded.” One example of the value of First Aid assistance to community groups is shown in an article from the Weekly Times, 29th November 1930. It records a report from the Annuello Branch of the Younger Set (a Country Women’s Organisation), telling that on Armistice Day their president Mrs Jamieson, presented the Annuello School with the gift of a Sanax Red Cross First Aid outfit, which was accepted as being “of great practical use to the scholars.” (Annuello is a remote wheat growing area in the Mallee region of North Western Victoria, which became a soldier settlement area after World War I. There is a strain of wheat named ‘Annuello’ due to its suitability for that area. ) The Sanax Case in our Collection contains instructions, equipment and medical items suitable for use in emergency situations. The Case was one of 42 patterns available from Sanax that conformed to ‘Part 1, Victorian Factories Regulations’. It includes items made by Sanax Company and by Burroughs Wellcome & Co. (Australia) Ltd., Sydney, NSW. A quote at the back of the First Aid Emergency Instructions booklet says: “Sanax products are made in Australia by or under the supervision of qualified chemists, from the highest quality materials. They are dependable for the purposes written on labels.” BOOKLET included in First Aid Case: “SANAX” First-Aid Emergency Instructions has orange cover and white pages, joined in the centre by two staples. Booklet contains First Aid Instructions for general events listed in alphabetical order. It also contains an indexed sections headed “Poisoning, and what to do” written by S.A. Burrows, Ph.C., Vuc and N.Z. There are instructions and diagrams on how to perform Artificial Respiration. There are advertisement for Sanax products throughout the booklet that include; - Sanax Ambulance Stretcher for timber mills, mines, ships and quarries - Saw dust masks (porous rubber) for workers in dust, paint or duco sprayers Inside cover lists Sanax’s Australian made products including - tablets and powders for headaches, neuralgia, influenza, colds - snuff for Catarrh that is “quite harmless” - First Aid Cases that come in a range of 42 patterns - sunburn preventatives and treatments - healing salve for carbuncles, pock, pimples, boils, varicose ulcers etc. - snake bite outfits and kits LEAFLETS included in First Aid Case: (1) Tannafax Tannic Acid Jelly. Tannafax should be kept at hand in every home. It should be applied direct from the tube and used with neither oil nor grease. Where a large area has to be covered the clamped end may be torn or cut off to give a wider mouth to the tube. Collapsible tubes of different sizes. Made in Australia. Burroughs Wellcome & Co. (Australia) Ltd. (Incorporated in England). Sydney, NSW. Assorted Houses, London, New York, Montreal, Cape Town, Milan, Bombay, Shanghai, Buenos Aires. Copyright A. 1817, J. 9463 (2) Tabloid. The strong thing is the just - - . Tabloid marks the wor - - Burroughs Wellcome & Comp. The use of the word is to enab – the prescriber, dispenser and patient to get the right thing with one short word, instead of the firm’s long name. If another maker apply the word to his product, the act is unlawful. Tabloid is our trade mark and brand. If a vendor disregard it in dispensing or selling, the act is unlawful for the same reason. We prosecute both offenders rigorously, in the interest of prescribers, dispensers, patients and the owners of the trade mark. Please inform us of any instance of either offence. Burroughs Wellcome & Co. (Australia) Ltd. (Incorporated in England). Telephone Number - M 4184 (4 lines) All communications to G.P.O. Box No. 1185 DD. Copyright Sy. 20. & J 9894. Medicines and Equipment included in First Aid Case: - Absorbent Cotton, Sanax, for absorbing blood or drying a wound. As a swab for washing wounds; to place above a compress to keep the heat in: or as a pad to protect wounds or fractures. The Sanax Co. Manuf. Chemists, Melbourne. Regd. Office: 5 Brunswick St, Fitzroy. N.6. - ACHE tablets, Sanax, for all aches, pains, fevers etc. Dose: 2 to 3 tablets with a draught of water, every 3 hours. Children in proportion. For influenza or colds, take the bedtime dose with a hot lemon drink or toddy. Recommended for Headaches, Colds, Influenza, Fevers, Neuralgia, Rheumatism, Nerve Pains, Sleeplessness, and Seasickness. Three Sanax Ache tablets equals one Sanax Ache powder. Each tablet contains 1.75grs. each Phenacotinum and Acety acSzilcyl, and .75grs Ammon Brom. Etc.. Sanax brand specialties are prepared by highly qualified pharmaceutical chemists and may be accepted as safe and effective for the purpose indicated on the label. The Sanax Co. Melbourne - Eye lotion, Sanax, “in eye bath full strength or diluted with equal parts of water. Sanax Co. Brunswich St, Fitzroy, Melbourne. - Iodine, Sanax, POISON, with instructions for what to do if swallowed. - Kuraburn, Sanax, Applied to the burn and allowed to dry, the pain and heat instantly disappear, and blistering is prevented. If necessary, apply again in an hours. To safeguard against burning when sunbathing, apply before exposure to the sun. If already sunburnet, use Kuraburn as directions above. Safe and harmless. Sole makers, The Sanax Co. Brunswick St. - - Vic. - Sal Volatile, Sanax, - - stimulant for - - nervous aches - - or as smelling salts Dose - - - - Solution of A- - - 5%, . The Sanax Co. Brunswick St, Melbourne. - Tannafax, Burroughs Wellcome & Co. Australia Ltd. Sydney, N.S.W., 20gm. Approx., Tannic Acid Jelly, (Tannic Acid with 0.5% Phenol in a water-soluble base) for burns and scalds. A.N. 15050, p188, logo of a unicorn. Apply lightly, allow to dry, and bandage loosely. Do not apply oil or grease. - bottle wrapped in brown paper, unknown contents, paper adhered to bottle. - dish, kidney shaped, metal, white enamel with black rim - eye bath, green, plastic or Bakelite SANAX COMPANY The Sanax Company was at the address of 5 Brunswick Street, Fitzroy [Melbourne] at least as early as November 1924, as shown by its advertisement of Ache Powder in the Weekly Times, 8th November 1924. It was still at this address in September 1951, when it advertised First Aid outfits and components in the Post Master General’s section of the Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. REFERENCES: Annuello, Victoria; Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annuello,_Victoria Annuello Younger Set, Branch Activities and Local Reports, Country Women’s Organisations, Weekly Times, 29 November 1930, Trove http://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/224921009?searchTerm=%22sanax%22%20and%20%22melbourne%22&searchLimits=# Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, Issue 32, 24th April 1915, https://www.legislation.gov.au/file/1915GN32 [Johnson & Johnson Price List, September 1, 1888, p. 20. From our archives], Celebrating the 125th Birthday of the First Aid Kit , The Story of Johnson & Johnson, , http://www.kilmerhouse.com/2013/06/from-1888-to-2013-celebrating-the-125th-birthday-of-the-first-aid-kit/ Post Master General’s section of the Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, Issue No. 73, Thursday 27th September 1951 http://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/232185299?searchTerm=%22sanax%22%20and%20%22fitzroy%22&searchLimits= Sanax First Aid Emergency Instructions, by S.A. Burrows, publisher Sanax Ltd. Fitzroy, Victoria, 1930-1939 English, book, Illustrated edition, Trove http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/40948895

Significance

Access to emergency medical help in early settlement days of Victoria could take quite some time, especially in remote areas. From 1888 First Aid Kits and instructions became available for work sites, offices, community groups and individuals, helping to bridge the gap between the accident and the arrival of medical assistance. This portable Sanax First Aid Case is an example of portable medical equipment made in Melbourne, Australia, in the 1930’s and available to the public. It contains a range of items plus information to be used in a variety of injuries and emergencies in in factories, households, businesses and local communities, and instructions on their use.

Inscriptions & Markings

Printed in gold on lid of case “SANAX” FIRST AID CASE. Most of the contents, as well as the case, show the “SANAX” brand. Some contents are inscribed Burroughs Wellcome & Co. (Australia) Ltd.,

Lithograph

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Lithographs of various types pertaining to Suez Canal, shipwrecks and marine art of the 1800s. Also included in this collection are lithographs connected with cable laying done during this particular period. These woodcut lithographs appeared in "The Illustrated London News"

Clock

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

This 1864 hall clock originates from the Warrnambool Post Office. The clock glass is hinged to the top of the clock face and has a catch at the bottom. The metal rim of the glass is painted black. The clock face is metal, painted white, with black Roman numerals and markings for minutes and five minutes. The tip of the small hour hand is shaped like a leaf. "T. GAUNT / MELBOURNE" is printed in black on the clock face. The winding key hole is just below the centre of the clock face. The key winds a fusee chain mechanism, attached to the brass mainspring barrel that powers the pendulum with an 8-day movement. The speed of the clock can be adjusted by changing the position of the weight on the pendulum, lengthening or shortening the swing; raising the pendulum shortens its swing and speeds up the clock. The metal fusee mechanism has an inscription on it. The rectangular wooden casing is with a convex curve at the bottom that has a hinged door with a swivel latch. The original stained surface has been painted over with a matte black. There are two other doors that also allow access to the clock’s workings. The case fits over the pendulum and workings at the rear and attaches to the clock by inserting four wooden pegs into holes in the sides of the case then into the back of the clock. A flat metal plate has been secured by five screws onto the top of the case and a hole has been cut into it for the purpose of hanging up the clock. There is a nail inside the case, possibly used for a place to the key.

Historical information

Thomas Gaunt History: Thomas Gaunt established Melbourne's leading watchmaking, optical and jewellery business during the second half of the 19th century. Gaunt arrived in Melbourne in 1852, and by 1858 had established his own business at 14 Little Bourke Street. Around 1869 he moved to new premises in Bourke Street on the corner of Royal Arcade, Gaunt's shop quickly became a Melbourne institution. Gaunt proudly advertised that he was 'The only watch manufacturer in the Australian colonies'. While many watches and clocks may have had Gaunt's name on the dial, few would have been made locally. Gaunt did make some watches for exhibitions, and perhaps a few expensive watches for wealthy individuals. Gaunt's received a telegraph signal from Melbourne Observatory each day to correct his main clock and used this signal to rate and repair ship's chronometers and good quality watches. His main horological manufacturing was directed at turret clocks for town halls, churches and post offices. These tended to be specific commissions requiring individualised design and construction. He made the clock for the Melbourne Post Office lobby, to a design by Government Astronomer Robert Ellery, and won an award at the 1880-81 Melbourne International Exhibition for his turret clock for the Emerald Hill Town Hall. He became well known for his installation of a chronograph at Flemington Racecourse in 1876, which showed the time for the race, accurate to a quarter of a second. The firm also installed the clockwork and figures for Gog and Magog in the Royal Arcade. Thomas Gaunt also developed a department that focused on scientific instrumentation, making thermometers and barometers (from imported glass tubes), telescopes, surveying instruments and microscopes. Another department specialised in electroplating for trophies, awards and silverware, and the firm manufactured large amounts of ecclesiastical gold ware and silverware, for the church including St Patrick's Cathedral. There are no records that disclose the number of employees in the firm, but it was large enough for Gaunt to hold an annual picnic for the watchmakers and apprentices at Mordialloc from 1876; two years previously they had successfully lobbied Gaunt to win the eight hour day. Gaunt's workforce was reportedly very stable, with many workers remaining in the business for 15 to 30 years. Gaunt's wife Jane died on September 1894, aged 64. They had one son and six daughters, but only three daughters survived to adulthood. Two became nuns at the Abbotsford Convent and one daughter, Cecelia Mary Gaunt (died 28 July 1941), married William Stanislaus Spillane on 22 September 1886 and had a large family. Gaunt died at his home in Coburg, Victoria, leaving an estate valued at ₤41,453. The business continued as T. Gaunt & Co. after his death. Post Office and Clock History: Warrnambool’s Post Office has been in existence since 1857, when it was originally situated on the corner of Timor and Gilles Street. In March 1864 the Warrnambool Borough Council purchased this clock from Henry Walsh Jnr. for the sum of £25, “to be put up in front of the Post Office”. Henry Walsh Jnr was the eldest son of Melbourne’s Henry Walsh, maker and retailer of clocks, watches, thermometers and jewellery. In 1854 Henry Walsh Jnr. began business in Warrnambool as a watchmaker and jeweller later becoming a Councillor with now a local street named after him. The Post Office was extensively remodeled in 1875-76. Early photographs of this building show that the clock was installed on the northern outside wall, Timor Street, under the arches and between the 2 centre windows, where it could be seen by passers-by. Although spring loaded clocks date back to the 15th century, and fob and pocket watches evolving from these date to the 17th century, personal pocket watches were only affordable to the very fortunate. Public clocks such as this Post Office clock provided opportunity for all to know the time, and for those in possession of a personal watch to check and set their own timepieces to the correct time. During post office reservations during the 1970s the clock was removed and was eventually donated to the Flagstaff Collection.

Significance

The Clock’s maker Thomas Gaunt, is historically significant and was an established and well renowned scientific instrument and clock maker in Melbourne during the 1860s. He was at that time the only watchmaker in the Australian colonies. In the 1870’s and 1880’s he won many awards for his clocks and was responsible for sending time signals to other clocks in the city and rural areas, enabling many businesses and organisations to accurate set their clocks each day. Warrnambool Borough Council purchased this clock from Henry Walsh Jnr. for the sum of £25 and the clock used to stand in front of the Warrnambool post office to allow ordinary citizens to set their time pieces as they walked by. The item is not only important because it was made by a significant early colonial clock maker and retailed by a locally known clock maker and jeweler but also that it was installed in the Warrnambool Post Office a significantly historical building in it's own right. Built in 1857 and regarded as one of the oldest postal facilities in Australia, with a listing on the National Heritage Database, (ID 15656).

Inscriptions & Markings

"T. GAUNT MELBOURNE" is printed on the clock face. “6 1 3” embossed on the back of the fusee mechanism behind the clock.

Pulley

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

This item is an oval-shaped brown and orange wooden shell from a ship’s pulley. The original wooden material is now petrified but the lighter coloured concentric rings of the wood's grain are still visible. A metal sheave or drum is fitted into the centre hole and some of the edge of its sheave’s collar has corroded and broken away. The collar has three holes of equal size that are evenly spaced around it. The bearing ring is now detached but still connected to the pulley with a string on which a label is attached. Most of the six cylindrical metal roller bearings are sand encrusted but some are still visible.

Historical information

Wooden pulley wheel section from the wreck “Newfield”. The Newfield was a three-masted iron and steel barque, built in Dundee, Scotland, in 1889 by Alexander Stephen and Sons. It was owned by the Newfield Ship Company in 1890 and later that year It was registered in Liverpool to owners Brownells and Co. The Newfield left Sharpness, Scotland, on 28th May 1892 with a crew of 25 under the command of Captain George Scott and on 1st June left Liverpool. She was bound for Brisbane, Australia, with a cargo of 1850 tons of fine rock salt, the main export product of Sharpness. At about 9pm on 28th August 1892, in heavy weather, Captain Scott sighted, between heavy squalls, the Cape Otway light on the mainland of Victoria but, due to a navigational error (the ship’s chronometers were wrong), he assumed it to be the Cape Wickham light on King Island, some 40 miles south. He altered his course to the north, expecting to enter Bass Strait. The ship was now heading straight for the south west Victorian coast and at about 1:30am ran aground on a reef about 100 yards from shore and one mile east of Curdie’s Inlet, Peterborough. The ship struck heavily three times before grounding on an inner shoal with 6 feet of water in the holds. Rough sea made the job of launching lifeboats very difficult. The first two lifeboats launched by the crew were smashed against the side of the ship and some men were crushed or swept away. The third lifeboat brought eight men to shore. It capsized when the crew tried to return it to the ship for further rescue The Port Campbell rocket crew arrived and fired four rocket lines, none of which connected with the ship. A local man, Peter Carmody, volunteered to swim one mile to the ship with a line to guide the fourth and final lifeboat safely to shore. Seventeen men survived the shipwreck but the captain and eight of his crew perished. The Newfield remained upright on the reef with sails set for a considerable time as the wind slowly ripped the canvas to shreds and the sea battered the hull to pieces. The Marine Board inquiry found the wreck was caused by a "one man style of navigation" and that the Captain had not heeded the advice of his crew. According to Jack Loney ‘… when the drama was over . . the Newfield was deserted except for the Captain’s dog and two pigs.’ Flagstaff Hill Maritime Museum has several artefacts that have been salvaged from the wreck. See also other items in the Flagstaff Hill Newfield Collection.

Significance

The report from SHP documented the following in regards to the Newfield collection: Flagstaff Hill’s collection of artefacts from the Newfield is of historical and archaeological significance at a State level, because of its association with the shipwreck, which is on the Victorian Heritage Register. The collection is significant because of its relationship between the objects. The Newfield collection is archaeologically significant as it is the remains of an international cargo ship. The Newfield collection is historically significant for representing aspects of Victoria’s shipping history and its potential to interpret sub-theme 1.5 (Living with natural processes). The collection is also historically significant for its association with the shipwreck. The Newfield collection meets the following criteria for assessment: Criteria A: Importance to the course, or pattern, of Victoria’s cultural history Criteria B: Possession of uncommon, rare or endangered aspects of Victoria’s cultural history Criteria C: Potential to yield information that will contribute to an understanding of Victoria’s cultural history

Inscriptions & Markings

The pulley has a string through it that attaches it to the bearing. The label on the string bears the handwritten words “PULLEY WHEEL / NEWFIELD / PETER ROLAND”.

Chart Case

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Chart case (or map case), wooden, has hinged opening at top. Front of case folds down and has a hook closure. It contained 65 British Admiralty navigational charts, which are listed and stored separately. (See separate items 2928.2 to 2928.66)

Inscriptions & Markings

There is a hand written name on the back of the case.

Copper Sheet

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Large heavy sheets or panels of copper metal raised from the wreck of the LOCH ARD. The 10 sheets are of roughly similar dimensions and rectangular shape. They bear signs of prolonged submersion in seawater, with various degrees of limestone accretion, adhered marine growth, and green oxidisation. Three of the sheets are severely buckled, demonstrating the force of underwater explosives used in their salvage. One sheet appears cut or severed in a diagonal line downwards from its top left hand corner. One sheet has a 10cm X 10cm square cut out of its top right hand corner. All sheets are in sturdy, stable condition. No maker’s marks are visible.

Historical information

In 1984 the Commonwealth Government made available to Flagstaff Hill a collection of lead ingots and copper sheets recovered from the wreck-site of the LOCH ARD. They were presented to the Warrnambool City Council by the Hon. Tom Uren MHR, Minister for Territories and Local Government: “The Commonwealth recognises that shipwrecks like the LOCH ARD are our national heritage with important educational, recreational and tourist applications” (The Standard, Tuesday 8 May 1984). The LOCH ARD was wrecked in 1878. Unsuccessful salvage operations were then undertaken with the 90 ton paddle steamer NAPIER. In sudden bad weather this vessel too was sunk. The precise position of the LOCH ARD in the exposed and dangerous waters off Mutton Bird Island became lost to memory. The underwater location of the LOCH ARD was rediscovered in 1967 by a Warrnambool skindiver, Stan McPhee. In the two years following his find, the vessel was systematically pillaged by unauthorised salvagers. This led to the State and Federal Governments’ intervention in 1969. A roundup and seizure of recovered lead ingots and copper sheets was conducted by Commonwealth and Victorian Police. Offenders were charged and convicted. The “repossessed loot of the Tassie Boys” was placed into secure storage (Jack Loney, 1978, Wrecks & Reputations). The LOCH ARD manifest of cargo lists “Pig lead 50 tons, 994 pig & 37 rolls” and “Copper 33 plates, 53 bolts”. While the lead ingots have been subsequently described as “ballast”, the copper sheets are unlikely to have been associated with the ship’s normal complement in that way. Similar product lines in the cargo manifest are “Bar and rod iron 102 tons”, “Plate iron 3 tons” and “Zinc 12 tons”. These raw materials were used by colonial artisans such as blacksmiths and metal smelters to fashion, and repair, agricultural implements and industrial machinery. Copper was valued for its non-corrosive properties and its malleability, or ease of working. Both these qualities were useful, for example, in laying underground gas pipes that supplied lighting to residences, businesses and streetscapes in the mid-nineteenth century. As the nineteenth century progressed, the metal was also increasingly valued for its conductivity, with copper wiring linking colonial communities to each other, and the wider world, via the Telegraph system.

Significance

The ship wreck of the LOCH ARD is of state significance. Victorian Heritage Register S417. Flagstaff Hill’s collection of artefacts from LOCH ARD is significant for being one of the largest collections of artefacts from this shipwreck in Victoria. It is significant for its association with the shipwreck, which is on the Victorian Heritage Register (VHR S417). The collection is significant because of the relationship between the objects, as together they have a high potential to interpret the story of the LOCH ARD. The LOCH ARD collection is archaeologically significant as the remains of a large international passenger and cargo ship. The LOCH ARD collection is historically significant for representing aspects of Victoria’s shipping history and its potential to interpret sub-theme 1.5 of Victoria’s Framework of Historical Themes (living with natural processes). The collection is also historically significant for its association with the LOCH ARD, which was one of the worst and best known shipwrecks in Victoria’s history.