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Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History Melbourne, Victoria

Dr Geoffrey Kaye established a museum from his private collection of anaesthetic apparatus in 1946.

The Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History is now part of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists. The museum showcases over 170 years of advances in anaesthesia and pain medicine, and is one of the largest and most diverse collections of its type in the world.

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Contact Information

location
ANZCA House 630 St Kilda Road Melbourne Victoria 3004 (map)
phone
+61 +61 3 8517 5309

Contact

Opening Hours

Monday - Friday, 10am - 4pm Bookings are essential

Entry Fee

Free entry

Location

ANZCA House 630 St Kilda Road Melbourne Victoria

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The collection focuses on the development of anaesthesia practice from its beginning, in 1846, through to contemporary practice. A number of related medical specialties are also represented in the collection, such as pain medicine and hyperbaric medicine. The collection focuses on the equipment, apparatus and instruments designed for advancement in practice, as well as the lives and contributions of the many individuals who have grown the specialty.

Significance

The museum’s collection looks at the history of anaesthesia and pain medicine, as well as other related medical specialties. It allows us to follow the transformation from an unskilled and unreliable art into a highly scientific medical specialty.

Dwight Crapson 9 September 2015 7:44 AM

My Grandmother was killed during a medical procedure around 1924. The story, as I understand it was that she was going to have her tonsils removed, and that the doctor had a new ether dispensing machine which caused her death by an overdose of ether. This occurred somewhere in Kansas, if I am not mistaken. As I understand it, this was not an isolated incident, and the machines were removed from use after some 28 or so patients suffered the same fate. Do you have any information that would verify, and possibly add details to this story? I am somewhat interested in seeing what the machine looked like, and knowing more about it, etc. Thank you, Dwight A. Crapson

Monica Cronin, ANZCA Curator 9 September 2015 9:52 AM

Dear Dwight, That is an unfortunate story from your family's history. To investigate the story further, I would recommend you try to get more background information such as the exact date and which hospital was involved. I would recommend you contact the Kansas Digital Newspaper Archive (https://www.kshs.org/p/kansas-digital-newspaper-program/16126) who may be able to help you track down this information. Such a large number of deaths may well have been reported in a local newspaper and may include a name or description of the equipment used. When you have some more information please feel free to get back in touch and we may be able to show you something from our collection that matches the equipment used. Otherwise, the Wood Library-Museum of Anesthesiology in Illinois may be able to help (http://www.woodlibrarymuseum.org/). Good luck with your search. Cheers Monica Cronin Curator, Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History

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Photograph

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Colour photograph of an Ormbsy inhaler lying on a wooden table. The inhaler has a metal mouthpiece with rubber tubing around the edge, and a rubber bag inside a black netbag.

Photograph

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Black and white photograph of a McKesson Nargraf anaesthetic record. The chart is for patient R.W's anaesthetic record, a 31 year old male for a right inguinal hernia operation on 2/5/1938. The anaesthetist listed is K. The chart lists the times and notes from the procedure, starting at 10.22am and ending at 11.27.

Needle

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Brown and white coloured cardboard box with white and black manufacturer's label adhered to front with plastic tray inside box containing twelve (12) hypodermic needles.

Inscriptions & Markings

Moulded into plastic tray: B-D TWIN PAK Stamped into flat section of connector: B-D 27 Stamped in red ink on inside base of box base: 6 MAR. 1965

Airway, Pharyngeal, Poe's

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Hollow curved metal tube with flat plate at one end and two tube coming out of it, one curved to the left, one curved to the right.

Historical information

This is an example of an early airway management device for anaesthesia.

Inscriptions & Markings

Engraved by hand on curve of tube: POE'S / ASA 1940 Engraved by hand on flat plate: Wood Stamped into flat plate: REGGER

Case

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Black round topped box with brass hooks at front and brass hinges at rear. There is a black fabric handle on the top (broken). Inside the box is black padding with the manufacturer's logo printed in gold leaf. There is a square section in the base of the box, usually for a glass bottle but which is holding a metal pourer. The rest of the kit is missing.

Inscriptions & Markings

Printed in gold leaf on inside lid of box: MAYER & MELTZER / LONDON / MELBOURNE & CAPE TOWN Stamped on underside of metal pourer: BARTH & CO / LONDON Handwritten on inside of lifting linen-covered paper: [indecipherable] d as described on Pawn-Ticket / January 1903 / Jacket / Boots [cont...]

Blade, Laryngoscope, Macintosh

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Macintosh semi curved blade designed in a child size, with a light bulb attached to the blade and a hinge attached to the back side of the base. Several scratches and deep hit marks over its surface caused by its previous use. This piece also has visible old dust spots and stains. Its contact stud is in a well condition and does not has any inscriptions.

Historical information

"First described by professor R. R. Macintosh in the Lancet of February 13th, 1943, this design is now the acknowledged leader throughout the world." (PENLON, 1969) Reference: PENLON. 1969. Anaesthetic Equipment - Longworth Scientific Instrument Company LTD. Abingdon, Berkshire, England. January 1969.

Vial, Ketalar

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Three small glass vials with different colour print labels on each containing 10ml Ketalar (Ketamine Hydrochloride).

Historical information

Ketamine is useful for inducing anaesthesia in shocked patients. It is also commonly used in low doses or infusions for the management of chronic pain. It can produce a state of 'dissociative anaesthesia', where patients are pain free, but not necessarily unconscious.

Label, Cylinder

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Large unused diamond shaped Austox label made for use on carbogen cylinders. Beige with a black border, and green and red lettering.

Inscriptions & Markings

Information printed on label: SPECIALLY PREPARED FOR MEDICAL USES. / AUSTOX [logo] / COMPRESSED / CARBOGEN / CO2..........% OXYGEN.......... / (The percentages stated above are subject to tolerance) / KEEP COOL [in red] / CONTENTS: Imperial Gallons / WARNING - Great caution must be exercised to prevent any oil entering the cylinder, or being applied to the valve or fittings. The use of oil may lead to a dangerous explosion. [in red] / Australian Oxygen & Industrial Gases / Pty. Ltd. / MELBOURNE

Set, Tongue Depressor

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Set of four chrome plated metal tongue depressors of different sizes. Each depressor has been engraved with a number (1 - 4). Numbers 2 - 4 also have a metal tube that could be used to administer anaesthesia simultaneously. Numbers 2 - 3 also have cross-hatched grooves in the depressor and all have finger grips engraved into the handles.

Historical information

General anaesthesia relaxes muscles around the airway which can result in the airway becoming obstructed. Holding the jaw open or keeping the tongue out of the way were crucial. Often, brutal devices were used to open the jaw or pull the tongue forward to clear the airway.

Mask, Murray

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Triangular shaped wire mask covered by flannel. The flannel is sewn over frame and stitched around the base and along the vertical wire. The style and shape is similar to Murray's mask, which was used for the administration of chloroform, however this variation is not collapsible like Murray's mask.

Historical information

Seems to be a non- collapsible mask. Otherwise is a similar, thinner variety of Murray's mask, which was used for the administration of choloroform. John Murray was born in England, 1843 and described his wire mask in 1868 as a young chloroformist at Middlesex Hospital. It was wedge-shaped and made of thick wire and designed to be folded. The removable cover was originally made of several layers of flannel. Murray’s mask became very popular, especially in Australia, and was generally used with a single layer of flannel without an aperture or opening, as is this example. John Murray was an enthusiastic and innovative physician who also had an interest in nitrous oxide anaesthesia and conducted a series of experiments with J. Burdon Sanderson on dental patients comparing nitrous oxide to pure nitrogen. His career was short-lived and he died just before his 30th birthday. (Ball, C 1995, 'Cover Note: Murray's Chloroform Mask', Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Vol. 23, No. 2, pg. 135)

B-D Yale Kaufman Syringe

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Glass and metal vein seeker syringe with a 10cc total volume. The barrel and plunger are manufactured from glass; the needle point from metal. The barrel is connected to the plunger via a metallic clip and chain and intravenous drip is added to the syringe via a side tube that is blocked with a corc stopper.

Inscriptions & Markings

Etched on syringe barrel in brown lettering: "B-D Yale Kaufman' and '5942Y'. The serial number is also repeated on the plunger.

Analgesia device, patient controlled

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Two parallel sections enclosed in cream coloured metal casing and joined in the centre via a brown metal section that also forms the base and stand. The left side has a dark brown perspex cover with a small brushed metal latch and handle. The right has a grey metal panel with dial, knobs and a rolled paper dispenser. A clear plastic intravenous bag is attached to the device by a clear plastic tube.There is also a black plastic coated wire attached to a handle with a red button on top. This is used for the patient to administer the analgesia.

Historical information

Patient controlled analgesia, or PCA, was developed in the 1960s. This mode of opioid administration allows patients to directly respond to their individual levels of pain. It is estimated there are now somewhere between six and 15 million uses annually.

Photograph

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Black and white photograph of the front view of an anaesthetic machine, labelled the Killian Apparatus. Glass flowmeters with four cylinders are on top of a white metal stand on castors. Hanging from the top of the machine are tubes connected to an inhaler bag with a netbag around it. A metal stool is to the right of the machine.

Inscriptions & Markings

Handwritten in black ink on surface: THE KILLIAN APPARATUS.

Laryngoscope, Macintosh

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Right hand stainless steel size 3 Macintosh interchangeable laryngoscope blade with light bulb, attached to a standard sized handle with serrated grip and no batteries inside deposit. Minor scratches and hit marks are over its surface. A blue sticky tape is attached to the back side of the blade where the size and type is, also can be found the mark left by a previous sticky tape around the top neck of the handle. The blade was made by Penlon in England.

Historical information

"First described by Professor R. R. Macintosh in the Lancet of February 13th, 1943, this design is now the acknowledged leader throughout the world." (PENLON, 1969) Reference: PENLON. 1969. Anaesthetic Equipment - Longworth Scientific Instrument Company LTD. Abingdon, Berkshire, England. January 1969.

Inscriptions & Markings

Engraved in cursive writing above the light bulb, Royal Childrens Hospital Engraved in capital writing above the light bulb next to previous text, D.A. Stamped at the back side of the blade, MACINTOSH / 3 Stamped at the blade base lateral side, REGD. TRADE MARK / PENLON / MADE IN ENGLAND Stamped at the blade back side, STAINLESS

Bellamy Gardner mask with Ogston frame

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Open wire ether mask with inner dome (Bellamy Gardner mask) and outer wire frame tower (Ogston frame).

Historical information

The Bellamy Gardner mask was in use by 1905 and was the first British mask for the open administration of ether. This mask combines the features of the Bellamy Gardner mask with a tower frame designed by Ogston. The Museum's "Penn catalogue", circa 1970, describes this mask: "this followed closely upon Ferguson's lead, but has an enormous amount of "dead-space" contained within the apparatus."

Inscriptions & Markings

Moulded into connector clip: BRITISH MAKE

Needle

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Mottled brown cardboard box containing twelve (12) metal needles woven through a metal tray and covered in clear plastic.

Inscriptions & Markings

Handwritten in blue ink on front cover of box: ML172

Photograph

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Black and white photograph of a demonstration of a dental procedure on a patient who is receiving anaesthesia. Dr Geoffrey Kaye, wearing a white gown, is holding the patient's jaw and is placing an instrument inside the patient's mouth. An anaesthetist's hands are supporting the patient's jaw and administering anaesthesia to the patient through an inhaler. The background of the photo has been covered with black ink so that only Dr Kaye, the patient, and the hands of the anaesthetist are visible.

Inscriptions & Markings

•Printed text in black ink on paper label glued under photo: It takes Two to support the Mandible. •Handwritten with blue ink on reverse and underlined: Photo. 6. / (Frame 23).

Cannula placement set

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Clear plastic strip adhered to white paper backing, forming a sealed packet containing a cardboard backing board, with a cannula attached.

Historical information

Cholera swept a deadly path through Europe in 1832. Irish physician, William O’Shaughnessy, proposed treating patients with saline infusions and Dr Thomas Latta of Leith, successfully applied the treatment. The intravenous route is the fastest way to deliver fluids and medications through the body. Today, fluid therapy is one of the most widespread interventions in acute medicine.

Inscriptions & Markings

Stamped in black ink on 3929.1: CAT: / NO. 1966 / CATHETER: 14 GA. / .058 I.D. / 5 1/2 IN. / 0182037 Stamped in black ink on 3929.2: CAT: / NO. 1967 / CATHETER: 16 GA. .044 I.D. / 5 1/2 IN. / 0189037

Vase, Glassware

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Two tear shaped clear vases, one with opaque yellow colouring on the outer edge and base, one with opaque green colouring on the outer edge and base.

Inscriptions & Markings

etched underneath the base - EDDIE

Cannulae, Transfusion

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Two glass tubes, one with straight and one with a curve at the base. The tubes, known as cannualae, were used to facilitate blood transfusions.

Historical information

Blood was long thought to be the essence of life and the centre of the soul; it was believed to provide a person with physical strength and mental abilities. In 1677, Richard Lower and Jean Baptiste Denis, in separate experiments, attempted animal-to-man transfusions to treat mental disorders. They had mixed success but didn't appear to cure the ailment. In 1818, James Blundell became interested in blood transfusion after witnessing the many deaths resulting from post-partum haemorrhage. He began with experiments in dogs and soon established it was possible to transfuse using a syringe if he worked quickly. Blundell established that cross-species transfusions didn't work and were dangerous. The early part of the 20th Century saw major developments in blood transfusion. Blood groups were identified by 1907 and the Kimpton Brown vessel (see 3675) slowed coagulation. These transfusion needles were used to collect and administer blood for transfusions.

Inhaler, Clover

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Black round topped box with brass hooks at front and brass hinges at rear. There is a black fabric handle on the top. Inside the box is black padding with the manufacturer's logo printed in gold leaf. There is a square section in the base of the box for holding the square clear glass bottle for ether. There is also a dome-shaped metal inhaler with a "whistle tip" type connection to the mask. The mask is made of tan leather. There is also a metal ether measure for pouring the ether.

Historical information

Dr. Joseph Clover (1825-1882), an English physician, first described his Portable Regulating Ether Inhaler on Jan. 20, 1877. Clover was an especially sought after anesthesiologist and early pioneer in the specialty. This was the best-known of many inhalers that Clover designed. The dome-shaped reservoir was turned to points on a control dial to gradually increase or decrease the percentage of the air that passed over the ether. Several inventors based new inhalers on this, while the original continued to be manufactured as late as the beginning of WWII. (Source: Wood Library Museum)

Inscriptions & Markings

Printed in gold leaf inside lid of box: MAYER & MELTZER [?] PORTLAND ST. / MAKERS •Engraved on side of inhaler: Mayer & Meltzer / London •Stamped on connector of inhaler: MAYER & MELTZER RN NO 212327 •Engraved on rear of inhaler: Clover's Inhaler •Printed in white on blue sticker: O.2.5A •Measurements have been stamped on the bottom of the inhaler. •Printed in black ink on mask: MADE IN ENGLAND •Stamped on metal connector inside mask: 6 •Printed in black ink on white manufacturer's label on glass bottle: ETHER PURUS '720 / H. Francis & Co., Melbourne.

Certificate, Fellowship

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Printed certificate from the Faculty of Anaesthetists of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) awarded to Robin William Smallwood as a Fellowship. Printed in black ink at the top of the certificate is the RACS coat of arms. The certificate is dated 25 Feburary 1965 and has been signed by President of the College, Member Executive Committee, Dean of the Faculty and the Secretary.

Historical information

Robin William Smallwood completed medicine at the University of Melbourne in 1958 and decided on anaesthesia as a career, attaining his FFARACS in 1964. Smallwood was Dean of the Faculty of Anaesthetists at the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons from 1986 - 1987. Smallwood died 6 October 1987 after a brief illness and was awarded the Orton Medal posthumously. The Orton Medal is the highest single achievement the College can bestow. Anaesthesia had its origins in October 1846 in America, by May 1847 news of ether anaesthesia had reached Australian shores and by June 1847 Australian medical practitioners had begun experimenting with and demonstrating ether anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was not really recognised as a distinct branch of medicine in Australia until the first Diploma of Anaesthesia course began in Sydney in 1944. The specialty grew quickly and by 1952 the Faculty of Anaesthesia at the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons had been established. Within 40 years the Faculty had grown to such an extent it became a College in its own right and continues to offer training and professional support to anaesthetists.

Stopcock, Hewitt

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Brown leather facemask attached to metal inhaler and stopcock device that has been sectioned to reveal its inner workings. The various exposed channels have been painted either green, red, blue or purple.

Historical information

When Hewitt introduced his regulating stopcock in 1887, attempts were made to dilute the nitrous oxide with air and so obviate the element of asphyxiation. The method was to be seen in London, mainly in dentistry and minor surgery, so late as 1930. It was not very successful. To give even 10% of oxygen (which is not enough) the gas-mixture must contain 55% of air and 45% of nitrous oxide. The latter is thus so diluted by atmospheric nitrogen as to be incapable of producing anaesthesia except by asphyxiation. "Gas-air" was confined to analgesia, for example in midwifery. (Source: Penn catalogue)

Inscriptions & Markings

Engraved into side of stopcock: HEWITT'S / N20-02 / 1895 / G. Kaye sect. 1952. •Stamped into other side of stopcock: [indecipherable] BARTH & CO. / SOLE MAKERS / 54. POLAND STREET LONDON.W.

Murray's Chloroform Mask

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Triangular shaped mask with hinged arm at point of triangle that connects to upper frame section via a hook. Used for the administration of chloroform.

Historical information

This small, neat, domette covered mask was widely used throughout Australia for the administration of chloroform anaesthesia.

Laryngeal Mask Airway

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Yellow plastic tubing with a pink rubber laryngeal mask attached. There is an additional fine yellow tube threaded through the base of the rubber mask.

Historical information

The Laryngeal Mask Airway was invented in 1983 by British anaesthetist, Archie Brain.

Inscriptions & Markings

Printed in black in along side: #4 LARYNGEAL MASK AUTOCLAVABLE INTAVENT 3:1

Photograph

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Black and white photograph of a drawing of the head of a McKesson Nargraf anaesthetic record, Model J. The view is from the top looking down onto the machine, showing a round vaporiser with a valve attached to it and two round pressure gauges on either side. The recorder on the machine does not have a chart attached to it.

Historical information

The McKesson Nargraf anaesthetic record was introduced in 1930, created by Dr Elmer I. McKesson.

Inscriptions & Markings

Handwritten in black ink the letters A - H on the surface, labelling each part of the machine.

Chevalier Jackson's laryngoscope

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

The U-shaped laryngoscope comprises a moulded handle and a long endotracheal insert which has a small connector to allow for a light to illuminate the patient's throat. The item is chrome-plated.

Historical information

Chevalier Jackson was a surgeon who designed this laryngoscope. Jackson contributed a number of important innovations to direct laryngoscopy, while developing a unique mastery of the technique. Ultimately, he combined this endoscopic proficiency with open surgical techniques.

Inscriptions & Markings

Engraved on connecting shaft: Jackson's Laryngoscope, 1901.

Drip tube

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Clear glass bulb with rubber caps at each end and blue manufacturer's information stamped onto bulb. Drip tube is housed in original packaging.

Vase, Glassware

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Tear shaped, emerald green, hand-blown glass

Historical information

Dr Briscoe was appointed Dean of the Faculty of Pain Medicine in 2008 and gifted the vase at the end of her term in 2010. Dr Briscoe was the first woman to be appointed Dean of the Faculty. The artist Robert Wynne is an accomplished glass artist in Australia. His artworks are held in significant public and private collections nation wide and overseas. Public collections include the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Artbank and the Queensland Contemporary Art Gallery. Wynne's artworks are also part of the private collections of Bill Clinton, Sir Elton John and the Royal Family Collection of Japan.

Inscriptions & Markings

Etched on base - DENIZEN

Label, Cylinder

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Large unused diamond shaped Austox label made for use on carbon dioxide cylinders. Black and beige background, with beige and red lettering.

Inscriptions & Markings

Information printed on label: SPECIALLY PREPARED FOR MEDICAL USES. / AUSTOX [logo] / COMPRESSED / CARBON DIOXIDE / KEEP COOL [in red] / WEIGHTS: / GROSS..........LBS. ........OZS. / TARE..........LBS. ........OZS. / NET..........LBS. .......OZS. / Contents Imp. Gallons / USE NO OIL OR GREASE ON VALVE [in red] / AUSTRALIAN OXYGEN / AND / INDUSTRIAL GASES / PTY. LTD. / MELBOURNE