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Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History Melbourne, Victoria

Dr Geoffrey Kaye established a museum from his private collection of anaesthetic apparatus in 1946.

The Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History is now part of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists. The museum showcases over 170 years of advances in anaesthesia and pain medicine, and is one of the largest and most diverse collections of its type in the world.

Links

Contact Information

location
ANZCA House 630 St Kilda Road Melbourne Victoria 3004 (map)
phone
+61 +61 3 8517 5309

Opening Hours

Monday - Friday, 10am - 4pm Bookings are essential

Entry Fee

Free entry

Location

ANZCA House 630 St Kilda Road Melbourne Victoria

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The collection focuses on the development of anaesthesia practice from its beginning, in 1846, through to contemporary practice. A number of related medical specialties are also represented in the collection, such as pain medicine and hyperbaric medicine. The collection focuses on the equipment, apparatus and instruments designed for advancement in practice, as well as the lives and contributions of the many individuals who have grown the specialty.

Significance

The museum’s collection looks at the history of anaesthesia and pain medicine, as well as other related medical specialties. It allows us to follow the transformation from an unskilled and unreliable art into a highly scientific medical specialty.

Dwight Crapson 9 September 2015 7:44 AM

My Grandmother was killed during a medical procedure around 1924. The story, as I understand it was that she was going to have her tonsils removed, and that the doctor had a new ether dispensing machine which caused her death by an overdose of ether. This occurred somewhere in Kansas, if I am not mistaken. As I understand it, this was not an isolated incident, and the machines were removed from use after some 28 or so patients suffered the same fate. Do you have any information that would verify, and possibly add details to this story? I am somewhat interested in seeing what the machine looked like, and knowing more about it, etc. Thank you, Dwight A. Crapson

Monica Cronin, ANZCA Curator 9 September 2015 9:52 AM

Dear Dwight, That is an unfortunate story from your family's history. To investigate the story further, I would recommend you try to get more background information such as the exact date and which hospital was involved. I would recommend you contact the Kansas Digital Newspaper Archive (https://www.kshs.org/p/kansas-digital-newspaper-program/16126) who may be able to help you track down this information. Such a large number of deaths may well have been reported in a local newspaper and may include a name or description of the equipment used. When you have some more information please feel free to get back in touch and we may be able to show you something from our collection that matches the equipment used. Otherwise, the Wood Library-Museum of Anesthesiology in Illinois may be able to help (http://www.woodlibrarymuseum.org/). Good luck with your search. Cheers Monica Cronin Curator, Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History

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Photograph

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Colour photograph of a Coutt's mask lying on a wooden table. The mask has a circular and made of metal and there is a small metal loop on the side of the object. Two thin metal hinges with screws are curved from one side of the mask to the other, and stuck on one hinge is a blue label with P.3.6 printed on it. Inside the mask is a metal mesh grill. A reddish brown residue like rubber and paper is stuck around the rim of the mask.

Photograph

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Black and white photograph of a lecture theatre with a man standing and leaning on the bench in front of numerous students. The students are sitting down at seats with long benches in front of them with notebooks open and writing content down. A small photograph of a McKesson Nargraf chart with writing on it from the Alfred Hospital has been glued to the top of the photograph and grey paint has been added around the chart, covering the original section of the photograph.

Inscriptions & Markings

•Black paper label glued on bottom front of photograph and written in white ink, captioned: A FORMAL LECTURE TO MEDICAL STUDENTS IN / THE THEATRE ADJOINING THE MUSEUM •Handwritten in black ink on reverse: Frame 13. •Handwritten in grey pencil on reverse: 15. [13 has been crossed out.]

Photograph

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Black and white photograph of a drawing of anaesthetic equipment, a flowmeter and an ether vaporiser. On the right is the ether vaporiser inside a glass cylinder, with a control tap on top of it. It is attached to a metal cylinder which houses the flowmeter which is measuring the Oxygen and Nitrous Oxide. There is a round Oxygen control and a Nitrous Oxide control attached underneath the metal cylinder, as well as an Oxygen Bypass and a Nitrous Oxide Bypass. The diagram has each part of the apparatus named with an arrow pointing to the parts.

Model, Hand, Acupuncture

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Rubber model of hand in sealed plastic bag which is original packaging. Hand is marked with acupuncture points on the palm and back of the hand. A leaflet is enclosed inside a plastic box with a white base and clear lid.

De Ford Somniform Inhaler

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

This inhaler is composed of metal and rubber. The oral mask and rubber covered nasal mask are connected to a curved rubber covered support that was placed on the patient's forehead to hold the inhaler in place. The gas was administered via a long tube; the terminus designed to allow for the placement of a vial containing the anaesthetic drug and a rebreather bag mount.

Historical information

The De Ford Inhaler was introduced in 1913 and was designed to allow anaesthesia to continue through the nose while dental surgery was happening.

Inscriptions & Markings

Inscribed on the back of the mouth inhaler: 'Dr De Ford's Universal Inhaler for Somniform Nitrous Oxide etc. E. De Trey & Sons Phila. PA U.S. Pat. Pending.'

Bowl

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Pewter bowl on raised round base with gold plated decorated inlay in an ornate flowery scroll pattern. The gift details are engraved on the one side of the bowl.

Historical information

The bowl was presented to ANZCA by Dr K Inbasegaran on behalf of the Malaysian Society of Anesthesiologists, Academy of Medicine of Malaysia, at the 2003 Hobart Annual Scientific Meeting (ASM). Dr. Richard Willis was President of the ANZCA at the time and formally accepted the gift during the ASM.

Inscriptions & Markings

[front] WITH COMPLIMENTS / TO ANZCA / FROM MAL. SOC. ANAES. / MAY 2003 [base, maker's mark] ROYAL / SELANGOR / PEWTER

Mask, Spectacle frame

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Metal mask resembling spectacles with round frames and rounded ends of the arms to secure around the ear. There is a tube coming from each round eye frame to end in a curve that sits in the nostril. The other end of this tube has a rubber tube attached which meets in the middle via a metal connector.

Historical information

The use of a catheter for oxygen therapy was introduced by Arbuthnot Lane in 1907. However, its true value can be seen in its use during WWI. Masks were cumbersome and uncomfortable for the wounded and nasal delivery of oxygen was received more easily. The Tudor Edwards' Spectacle-frame was manufactured in London during the 1930s. Dr Penn recorded that it was an inefficient means of oxygen therapy because of the smallness of the nasal tubes.

Photograph

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Black and white photograph showing ten unidentified male students standing around a lecture theatre table watching the unidentified male instructor as he points to one of four anaesthesia apparatus, carbon dioxide absorbers.

Inscriptions & Markings

•Black paper label glued on top of photograph with caption written in all caps in white ink: Demonstration of apparatus (Carbon Dioxide absorbers, in section). •Handwritten in black ink on reverse: Frame 14. •Handwritten in grey pencil on reverse: 16. 14 has been crossed out.

Wine coasters

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

A pair of sterling silver wine coasters with a turned wood base.

Historical information

This pair of wine coasters were gifted by the Faculty of Anaesthetists, Royal College of Surgeons of England to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the first meeting of the FARACS in 1952. The hallmarks engraved on the silver verify the maker and date.

Inscriptions & Markings

Engraved on both objects; PRESENTED BY / THE FACULTY OF ANAESTHETISTS R.C.S. ENG. / 1952-1977 [hallmark] LGS / character of lion / mark of leopards head / cursive script C / mark of Queen Victoria

Manometer, Mercury

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

This blood pressure kit is housed in a rectangular, vinyl covered box with metal handle and press-stud lid release mechanism. The lid opens upwards and the glass blood pressure valve and plastic scale is attached to the underside of the lid. The measurements are written in black and go up in increments of ten, from 0 to 300. The glass valve has unidentified increments labelled in red, which is housed within a metal cylinder. The bellows is attached to the measuring valve via a dark green pressure cuff and rubber hose.

Historical information

In the 1600s, William Harvey realised a finite amount of blood circulates in one direction through the body. Jean Léonard Marie Poiseuille introduced the mercury hydrodynometer in the early 1800s for measuring blood pressure. Karl von-Vierordt created the sphygmograph in 1855 and, in 1881, Samuel von Basch created the sphygmomanometer, distinct improvements on the hydrodynometer. In 1896, Scipione Riva-Rocci developed the mercury sphygmomanometer. American neurosurgeon, Harvey Cushing, was an early adopter, and advocate for monitoring patients during surgery and anaesthesia. Blood pressure monitoring is still an essential component of evaluating a patient’s condition.

Inscriptions & Markings

Blue sticker affixed inside the kit: JOHN MARUM Ornate manufacturer's label: THE ARMOURED / ELLISCO / SPHYGMOMANOMETER / MADE BY / ELLIOTTS & AUSTRALIA DRUG / [indecipherable] LTD / CENTEN[indecipherable] MODEL

Ethyl chloride inhaler

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

The inhaler comprises a black rubber face mask that connects to a metal circular chamber from which two white rubber valves are used to administer the anaesthetic agent. The ethyl chloride vials are labelled 'Kelene', a brand name. A waxed paper rebreather bag is attached to this metal chamer.

Historical information

The item was collected by Dr Geoffrey Kaye from a Vichy French military hospital during World war II.

Photograph

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Black and white photograph depicting an operating room with five doctors undertaking cardiovascular surgery. Four figures are standing in the background. One doctor is standing on the left of the photograph with a cardiopulmonary bypass machine in the foreground.

Airway, Pharyngeal, Lumbard's or Mayo's

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Metal airway device consisting of eight curved strips of metal joined together at the top and bottom by a flattened circle of metal. There is an additional metal circle joining the eight strips of metal approximately one third from the top.

Historical information

This pharyngeal airway was captured at Tripoli, Syria in 1941 during World War II. It was a piece of equipment at the Italica Gens hospital.

Bird Respirator Mark 7A with C.I.G. 'Ventviva' ventilator

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Apparatus attached to four castor stand with attached white wall connecting tubing.

Historical information

The Bird ventilator Mark 7 is driven by medical compressed air or oxygen. It is not suited for anaesthesia unless using a special anaesthesia assistor controller attachment, which is essentially a “bag in a bottle” device.

Certificate, Fellowship

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Printed certificate from the Faculty of Anaesthetists of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) awarded to Robin William Smallwood as a Fellowship. Printed in black ink at the top of the certificate is the RACS coat of arms. The certificate is dated 25 Feburary 1965 and has been signed by President of the College, Member Executive Committee, Dean of the Faculty and the Secretary.

Historical information

Robin William Smallwood completed medicine at the University of Melbourne in 1958 and decided on anaesthesia as a career, attaining his FFARACS in 1964. Smallwood was Dean of the Faculty of Anaesthetists at the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons from 1986 - 1987. Smallwood died 6 October 1987 after a brief illness and was awarded the Orton Medal posthumously. The Orton Medal is the highest single achievement the College can bestow. Anaesthesia had its origins in October 1846 in America, by May 1847 news of ether anaesthesia had reached Australian shores and by June 1847 Australian medical practitioners had begun experimenting with and demonstrating ether anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was not really recognised as a distinct branch of medicine in Australia until the first Diploma of Anaesthesia course began in Sydney in 1944. The specialty grew quickly and by 1952 the Faculty of Anaesthesia at the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons had been established. Within 40 years the Faculty had grown to such an extent it became a College in its own right and continues to offer training and professional support to anaesthetists.

Inhaler, Ether, Dewee

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Metal inhaler with shaped rim edge

Historical information

This is a simple metal mask with an ether chamber surmounting it. The patient breathes air down through the variable orifice over the surface of ether and in through the variable orifice over the surface of ether and in through the inspiratory valve. Exhalation was by means of the expiratory valve placed in the centre of the mask. All channels are extremely small and would offer considerable resistance to respiration.

Inscriptions & Markings

Engraved by hand into side of mask: DEWEE'S ETHER / INHALER.. 1901. Stamped into side of mask: J.E. LEECO / PATD. NOV. 12-1901 / 400

Slide

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Colour slide mounted in white cardboard slide case. Image depicts Clover Inhaler and rebreather bag against a green background.

Inscriptions & Markings

Handwritten in pencil: EMBLEY'S / 9448

Oscillotonometer, von Recklinghausen

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Brown leather case with silver clasp and brown leather handle. Case contains Dr. von Recklinghausen Scala Alternans Oscillotonometer – a round silver pressure gauge with paper scale and needle point reader. The silver valve and lever at the bottom of the gauge connects black and orange rubber tubing to the grey linen arm cuff rolled closed with Velcro and a rubber inflation bulb.

Historical information

This oscillotonometer was owned by Dr. Herbert Claus Newman, an Anaesthetist who gained his diploma in Anaesthetics in 1956. Dr Newman served in the Vietnam War and was also one of over 50 of Australia's medical professionals who signed a joint statement in 2004 condemning the Federal Government for committing Australian troops to the Iraq war.

Inscriptions & Markings

Yellow sticker on top of case in yellow type: H. NEWMAN Printed on face of gauge: Oscillotonometer / n. Dr. von Recklinghausen / "SCALA ALTERNANS" / 6585868 / S|K Printed on scale near zero reading: mmHg Printed on scale near highest reading: mm Hg = Torr Printed on scale is numbers 0 to 300 in increments of 20 Stamped on reverse of valve: 148

Blade, Laryngoscope, Macintosh

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Macintosh semi curved blade designed in a baby size, without light bulb attached. Minor scratches and some slight hit marks over the piece surface caused by its previous use. It has the manufacturer name and brand and the place where it was made at the back of the blade base.

Historical information

The design of this item is associated to what was "first described by Professor R. R. Macintosh in the Lancet of February 13th, 1943, this design is now the acknowledged leader throughout the world." (PENLON, 1969) Reference: PENLON. 1969. Anaesthetic Equipment - Longworth Scientific Instrument Company LTD. Abingdon, Berkshire, England. January 1969. The manufacturer of this blade is the Boots UK Limited pharmacy company, they apparently had a branch in Australia to distribute their medical and pharmaceutical equipment and part of them was focused on the manufacturing of laryngoscopes blades. The Boots company reproduced this trending design used in the anaesthetic practice. URL Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boots_UK / https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alliance_Boots

Inscriptions & Markings

Stamped at the blade back base area, BOOTS AUSTRALIA / MADE IN ENGLAND

Case

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Black round topped box with brass hooks at front and brass hinges at rear. There is a black fabric handle on the top (broken). Inside the box is black padding with the manufacturer's logo printed in gold leaf. There is a square section in the base of the box, usually for a glass bottle but which is holding a metal pourer. The rest of the kit is missing.

Inscriptions & Markings

Printed in gold leaf on inside lid of box: MAYER & MELTZER / LONDON / MELBOURNE & CAPE TOWN Stamped on underside of metal pourer: BARTH & CO / LONDON Handwritten on inside of lifting linen-covered paper: [indecipherable] d as described on Pawn-Ticket / January 1903 / Jacket / Boots [cont...]

Goblet

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Hand made gold gilded sterling silver goblet. The stem is designed in a rope like twist holding up a simple tempered cup. The hallmarks are punched on the outside of the cup.

Historical information

This goblet was gifted to the Faculty by Professor John Norman (UK) during the Combined Scientific Meeting (CSM) organized by Hong Kong College of Anesthesiologists (HKCA) with ANZCA, held in May 2001, Hong Kong. The goblet is a unique design by the Australian - born artist Stuart Devlin AO, CMG. Devlin is considered to be a significant contemporary gold and silversmith, having become well known as a London Designer in the '70s and '80s. His achievements include the Royal Warrant of Appointment as Goldsmith and Jeweller to the Queen of England granted in 1982.

Inscriptions & Markings

[hallmarks] SD / lion passant / lion's head / S

Salt cellar

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Sterling silver open cut salt cellar with blue glass bowl insert, boat shaped, featuring four ball feet, beaded borders with pierced and engraved detailing to the sides.

Historical information

Dr. S.A. Mellick was a long standing member of the Faculty of Anaesthetists, Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (FARACS) and gifted this object to the Faculty at the end of his term in 1989. Dr. Mellick was the first Australian to have become President of the International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery. The provenance and date of the salt cellar is verified by the hallmarks at the base of the dish made in 1804 during the reign of Britain's King George III.

Inscriptions & Markings

[stand] PRESENTED BY S.A. MELLICK / FARACS / JUNE 1989 [hallmark] S E D (indicates maker as S & E Davenport), Image of Lion (indicates sterling silver), I (Indicates made in 1804) Image of kings head (indicates made in London), image of Sovereign's Head (indicates duty mark) Three cursive initials on side of dish are difficult to recognize however may possibly be identified as J E W

Mask, Wire, Murray

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Triangular shaped mask with hinged arm at point of triangle that connected to upper wire section via a hook. Known as Murray's Mask and used for the administration of chloroform. Mask is covered with linen (gauze) cloth onto which chloroform would be dropped.

Photograph

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Colour photograph of a Bruck inhaler lying on its side on a wooden table. The metal inhaler is oval shaped with one half made of glass, and also has a vertical crosspiece. Lying next to the inhaler is a face mask and a filler for measuring ether.

Historical information

The Bruck Inhaler is a modification of the Clover Inhaler, designed by Lambert Bruck.

Photograph

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Black and white photograph of a demonstration of a dental procedure on a patient who is receving anaesthesia. An anaesthetist standing on the right is supporting the patient's mandible and administering anaesthesia to the patient through an inhaler. A second person's hand is holding a mouth gag dental instrument in the patient's mouth. The background of the photo has been covered with black ink so that only the patient, anaesthetist and hand of the third person are visible.

Inscriptions & Markings

•Printed text in black ink on paper label glued under photo: Supporting the Mandible : the Anaesthetist's Stance. •Handwritten with blue ink on reverse: Photo. 7. / (Frame 22).

Untitled

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Draeger resuscitation kit, inside wooden case with handle. Case contains small heavy gas cylinder with large beige handwritten 'S. M E' inscription on one side. Due to water damage case missing pieces of plywood in corner and floor of case bubbled and swollen.|Rubber decomposed rigid

Historical information

The Dräeger Pulmotor was developed in 1907. It addressed previous concerns about lung injury, by limiting both the inspiratory and expiratory pressures. Although still controversial, the Pulmotor was widely distributed and commercially successful. Oxygen from cylinders provided both the inspiratory gas flow and the driving mechanism. Expiration was an active process and gases were sucked from the lungs by negative pressure created by a Venturi effect. This device came with a facemask and harness, with a caution that the operator should take care to prevent air entering the stomach.

Needle

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

White cardboard box with green plastic strip around the centre and white manufacturer's label with green and red printed text on front of box. The box has a cardboard slide tray inside holding nine (9) needles, although there is allocation for twelve (12).

Inscriptions & Markings

Stamped in purple ink onto manufacturer's label: SHORT / BEVEL POINTS

Mouth opener, Heister

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Steel cork-screw shaped object with a twist top handle which will force the two arms apart. Each arm has ribbing toward the end to create friction when inserted in the mouth.

Historical information

The advent of anaesthesia posed immediate problems for the oral surgeons and dentists who were used to operating on awake patients with intact airway reflexes. Early anaesthetics were very light and often created an uncooperative patient. Dentists were quick to complain they had trouble opening the mouth quickly enough and dental props soon made an appearance. Gags and tongue depressors proliferated, all initially devised to improve surgical and anaesthetic access, not to protect the airway. Other instruments for opening the jaws included the somewhat fearsome devices known as mouth openers. Heister's mouth opener was incorporated in anaesthetic practice but was not designed for this purpose. Lorenz Heister (1983 - 1758) used his device for mouth inspection and for operations on the palate, tonsils and teeth in the pre-anaesthesia era. He was not impressed with the way it was used by others in his life time and believed that it overstretched the jaw when used inappropriately. Despite its apparent brutality, the Heister mouth gag was still advertised for sale in 1983 and its useful mechanism has been incorporated into modern surgical retractors.

Inscriptions & Markings

Stamped into the twist top handle: MAYER & MELTZER

Painting, portrait

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

Oil painting on canvas of Professor Teik Oh seated on a chair at an angle facing left, wearing the Presidential badge without the Presidential gown. Mounted in a plain gold frame.

Historical information

Professor Teik Oh was appointed ANZCA president in 2000 until 2002. The portrait was commissioned by ANZCA to commemorate the presidential term of Professor Teik Oh and was presented at the Anaesthesia Western Australia Annual Winter Scientific Meeting on the 7th August, 2004. The artist Ben Joel is a Western Australian artist, well known for his commissioned portraits and contemporary pieces in most media. Joel's artworks are represented in national private and public art collections.

Illustration

Geoffrey Kaye Museum of Anaesthetic History, Melbourne

An illustration hand drawn in black ink on paper showing intubation of the larynx on a reclining head and neck, which is drawn as a cross section showing the inside of the head and the airways. The beak of the Chevalier Jackson's laryngoscope is inside the mouth and engaged with the epiglottis, which is lifted forwards so the glottis is exposed.