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Talking Shop: Ballarat in Business and City Life at Ballaarat Mechanics' Institute

27 Jun 2019

Curated By

Amy Tsilemanis, Curator, Ballaarat Mechanics' Institute

115886 items with images

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115886 items with images

Photographs - 1979-80 MMBW pipe line project at Hubbard Reserve, North Ringwood � Work on boring mole pit

Ringwood and District Historical Society, Ringwood

Part of a 43-photo record of the MMBW�s engineering feat in drilling a 12 inch pipe line up to 40 feet deep through rock hardened by volcanic action associated with geological fault that occurs along the line. The work took place from October 1979 to May 1980 on the southern boundary of Hubbard Reserve, North Ringwood. The collection was presented to the Ringwood Historical Research Group by J Clarke on 9th June 1980.

Inscriptions & Markings

E560 N22Jan 1980 A43 Work on mole boring pit in 39 Burlock Avenue backyard

Periodical - Australian Aboriginal studies : journal of the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies

Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages, Rippleside

We don?t leave our identities at the city limits: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in urban localities Bronwyn Fredericks Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who live in cities and towns are often thought of as ?less Indigenous? than those who live ?in the bush?, as though they are ?fake? Aboriginal people ? while ?real? Aboriginal people live ?on communities? and ?real? Torres Strait Islander people live ?on islands?. Yet more than 70 percent of Australia?s Indigenous peoples live in urban locations (ABS 2007), and urban living is just as much part of a reality for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people as living in remote discrete communities. This paper examines the contradictions and struggles that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people experience when living in urban environments. It looks at the symbols of place and space on display in the Australian cities of Melbourne and Brisbane to demonstrate how prevailing social, political and economic values are displayed. Symbols of place and space are never neutral, and this paper argues that they can either marginalise and oppress urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, or demonstrate that they are included and engaged. Juggling with pronouns: Racist discourse in spoken interaction on the radio Di Roy While the discourse of deficit with regard to Australian Indigenous health and wellbeing has been well documented in print media and through images on film and on television, radio talk concerning this discourse remains underresearched. This paper interrogates the power of an interactive news interview, aired on the Radio National Breakfast program on ABC Radio in 2011, to maintain and reproduce the discourse of deficit, despite the best intentions of the interview participants. Using a conversation-analytical approach, and membership categorisation analysis in particular, this paper interrogates the spoken interaction between a well-known radio interviewer and a respected medical researcher into Indigenous eye health. It demonstrates the recreation of a discourse emanating from longstanding hegemonies between mainstream and Indigenous Australians. Analysis of firstperson pronoun use shows the ongoing negotiation of social category boundaries and construction of moral identities through ascriptions to category members, upon which the intelligibility of the interview for the listening audience depended. The findings from analysis support claims in a considerable body of whiteness studies literature, the main themes of which include the pervasiveness of a racist discourse in Australian media and society, the power of invisible assumptions, and the importance of naming and exposing them. Changes in Pitjantjatjara mourning and burial practices Bill Edwards, University of South Australia This paper is based on observations over a period of more than five decades of changes in Pitjantjatjara burial practices from traditional practices to the introduction of Christian services and cemeteries. Missions have been criticised for enforcing such changes. However, in this instance, the changes were implemented by the Aboriginal people themselves. Following brief outlines of Pitjantjatjara traditional life, including burial practices, and of the establishment of Ernabella Mission in 1937 and its policy of respect for Pitjantjatjara cultural practices and language, the history of these changes which commenced in 1973 are recorded. Previously, deceased bodies were interred according to traditional rites. However, as these practices were increasingly at odds with some of the features of contemporary social, economic and political life, two men who had lost close family members initiated church funeral services and established a cemetery. These practices soon spread to most Pitjantjatjara communities in a manner which illustrates the model of change outlined by Everett Rogers (1962) in Diffusion of Innovations. Reference is made to four more recent funerals to show how these events have been elaborated and have become major social occasions. The world from Malarrak: Depictions of South-east Asian and European subjects in rock art from the Wellington Range, Australia Sally K May, Paul SC Ta�on, Alistair Paterson, Meg Travers This paper investigates contact histories in northern Australia through an analysis of recent rock paintings. Around Australia Aboriginal artists have produced a unique record of their experiences of contact since the earliest encounters with South-east Asian and, later, European visitors and settlers. This rock art archive provides irreplaceable contemporary accounts of Aboriginal attitudes towards, and engagement with, foreigners on their shores. Since 2008 our team has been working to document contact period rock art in north-western and western Arnhem Land. This paper focuses on findings from a site complex known as Malarrak. It includes the most thorough analysis of contact rock art yet undertaken in this area and questions previous interpretations of subject matter and the relationship of particular paintings to historic events. Contact period rock art from Malarrak presents us with an illustrated history of international relationships in this isolated part of the world. It not only reflects the material changes brought about by outside cultural groups but also highlights the active role Aboriginal communities took in responding to these circumstances. Addressing the Arrernte: FJ Gillen?s 1896 Engwura speech Jason Gibson, Australian National University This paper analyses a speech delivered by Francis James Gillen during the opening stages of what is now regarded as one of the most significant ethnographic recording events in Australian history. Gillen?s ?speech? at the 1896 Engwura festival provides a unique insight into the complex personal relationships that early anthropologists had with Aboriginal people. This recently unearthed text, recorded by Walter Baldwin Spencer in his field notebook, demonstrates how Gillen and Spencer sought to establish the parameters of their anthropological enquiry in ways that involved both Arrernte agency and kinship while at the same time invoking the hierarchies of colonial anthropology in Australia. By examining the content of the speech, as it was written down by Spencer, we are also able to reassesses the importance of Gillen to the ethnographic ambitions of the Spencer/Gillen collaboration. The incorporation of fundamental Arrernte concepts and the use of Arrernte words to convey the purpose of their 1896 fieldwork suggest a degree of Arrernte involvement and consent not revealed before. The paper concludes with a discussion of the outcomes of the Engwura festival and the subsequent publication of The Native Tribes of Central Australia within the context of a broader set of relationships that helped to define the emergent field of Australian anthropology at the close of the nineteenth century. One size doesn?t fit all: Experiences of family members of Indigenous gamblers Louise Holdsworth, Helen Breen, Nerilee Hing and Ashley Gordon Centre for Gambling Education and Research, Southern Cross University This study explores help-seeking and help-provision by family members of Indigenous people experiencing gambling problems, a topic that previously has been ignored. Data are analysed from face-to-face interviews with 11 family members of Indigenous Australians who gamble regularly. The results confirm that substantial barriers are faced by Indigenous Australians in accessing formal help services and programs, whether for themselves or a loved one. Informal help from family and friends appears more common. In this study, this informal help includes emotional care, practical support and various forms of ?tough love?. However, these measures are mostly in vain. Participants emphasise that ?one size doesn?t fit all? when it comes to avenues of gambling help for Indigenous peoples. Efforts are needed to identify how Indigenous families and extended families can best provide social and practical support to assist their loved ones to acknowledge and address gambling problems. Western Australia?s Aboriginal heritage regime: Critiques of culture, ethnography, procedure and political economy Nicholas Herriman, La Trobe University Western Australia?s Aboriginal Heritage Act 1972 (WA) and the de facto arrangements that have arisen from it constitute a large part of the Aboriginal ?heritage regime? in that state. Although designed ostensibly to protect Aboriginal heritage, the heritage regime has been subjected to various scholarly critiques. Indeed, there is a widespread perception of a need to reform the Act. But on what basis could this proceed? Here I offer an analysis of these critiques, grouped according to their focus on political economy, procedure, ethnography and culture. I outline problems surrounding the first three criticisms and then discuss two versions of the cultural critique. I argue that an extreme version of this criticism is weak and inconsistent with the other three critiques. I conclude that there is room for optimism by pointing to ways in which the heritage regime could provide more beneficial outcomes for Aboriginal people. Read With Me Everyday: Community engagement and English literacy outcomes at Erambie Mission (research report) Lawrence Bamblett Since 2009 Lawrie Bamblett has been working with his community at Erambie Mission on a literacy project called Read With Me. The programs - three have been carried out over the past four years - encourage parents to actively engage with their children?s learning through reading workshops, social media, and the writing and publication of their own stories. Lawrie attributes much of the project?s extraordinary success to the intrinsic character of the Erambie community, not least of which is their communal approach to living and sense of shared responsibility. The forgotten Yuendumu Men?s Museum murals: Shedding new light on the progenitors of the Western Desert Art Movement (research report) Bethune Carmichael and Apolline Kohen In the history of the Western Desert Art Movement, the Papunya School murals are widely acclaimed as the movement?s progenitors. However, in another community, Yuendumu, some 150 kilometres from Papunya, a seminal museum project took place prior to the completion of the Papunya School murals and the production of the first Papunya boards. The Warlpiri men at Yuendumu undertook a ground-breaking project between 1969 and 1971 to build a men?s museum that would not only house ceremonial and traditional artefacts but would also be adorned with murals depicting the Dreamings of each of the Warlpiri groups that had recently settled at Yuendumu. While the murals at Papunya are lost, those at Yuendumu have, against all odds, survived. Having been all but forgotten, this unprecedented cultural and artistic endeavour is only now being fully appreciated. Through the story of the genesis and construction of the Yuendumu Men?s Museum and its extensive murals, this paper demonstrates that the Yuendumu murals significantly contributed to the early development of the Western Desert Art Movement. It is time to acknowledge the role of Warlpiri artists in the history of the movement.

Inscriptions & Markings

b&w photographs, colour photographs

Photograph

Phillip Island and District Historical Society Inc., COWES

Photograph of the Koala Edward's Tree fenced in as a memorial near "Broadwater". Edward is on display in the Phillip Island & District Historical Society's museum in Cowes.

Historical information

One of a collection of over 400 photographs in an Album commenced in 1960 and presented to the Phillip Island and Western port Historical Society by The Shire Of Phillip Island.

Photograph - Christmas Day 1914 at St John's College

Mission to Seafarers Victoria, Docklands

The photograph depicts a group of seamen seated at tables inside a room waiting for a dinner to be served. Only one lady dressed in white is amongst them. At the back a reverend can be seen standing.

Historical information

The Mission and the Ladies Harbour Light Guild organised many social events for seamen especially during the Christmas period. This one is one o the many events organised at the St John's College (formerly Cumloden College between 1891-1905) on 195-201 Alma Road, St Kilda East, in what seems to be the gymnasium (as per the ring hanging from the ceiling on the right). The reverend seen at the back could be Canon John Stephen Hart, successor of Canon Reginald Stephen, who welcomed the groups at the school on this occasions.

Inscriptions & Markings

Xmas Day 1914 at St John's College

Block

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

2 sheave metal block with eye, becket shackle and thimble

Photograph

Phillip Island and District Historical Society Inc., COWES

Photograph taken 1895 looking north along the Beach at San Remo showing Coal Jetty in the distance. Horse and rider in the shallows. Site of the first Phillip Island Bridge built in 1940.

Historical information

One of a collection of over 400 photographs in an album commenced in 1960 and presented to the Phillip Island & Westernport Historical Society by the Shire of Phillip Island

Article - Whatmough and Partington families by Alan Partington.

Greensborough Historical Society, Lower Plenty

Links: 02666:02673 Scanned copy of 4 typed pages.

Historical information

A scanned copy of a typed manuscript by Alan Partington. This article outlines the history of the Whatmough and Partington families. Alan was a descendent of the Whatmough and Partington families, Greensborough pioneers.

Significance

The story of Greensborough pioneers written by a descendant.

Bullet

Running Rabbits Military Museum operated by the Upwey Belgrave RSL Sub Branch, Upwey

.303 cal Practice round

Photograph

National Wool Museum, Geelong

Historical information

Depicts seven members of an R.S.&S. Mill 'A' basketball team. Those pictured are: Dorothy Beckley, Ruth Ramsay, Violet Jones, Jean Clark, Jean Jones, Edie Ramsay, Pat Rogan.

Document - Junior Legacy. Memorandum and Articles of Association.

Melbourne Legacy, Melbourne

Paper, colour white, two staples hold the document together, rectangular shape

Historical information

This document has been published with the Certificate of Incorporation under the Companies Act 1938 limiting the Company by Guarantee. The Special Licence grants dispensation for the use of the word "Limited". The Special Licence was granted by the Victorian State Attorney General T.W. Mitchell whose father in law was Harry Chauvel (led the calvary charge at Beersheba during World war 1).

Significance

Signifies that Junior Legacy Melbourne was incorporated under the Companies Act 1938 and the special licence granted to Junior Legacy, Melbourne meant that Junior Legacy Melbourne did not have to use the word "Limited" upon condition that the terms of the Memorandum and Articles of Association submitted to and cerified by the Attorney General are strictly followed.

Inscriptions & Markings

Page five, section 3c has been crossed out (black biro) except the first sentence. Page seven, item 4 - the words five hundred have been crossed out and the figure 1000 inserted (black biro). Front cover, stamp,(AV SMYTHE) EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT.

Photograph

Hume City Civic Collection, Sunbury

Unmounted sepia photograph.Two men fishing on a creek bank with tree on each side and a hill in the background.

Historical information

This photo came from an album of photos associated with the Grant family of Bulla. The album was in poor condition and so the photos were removed from it for archival storage. They were numbered in the order they appeareed in the album.Most of the photos were of the creek area in Bulla; a few contained figures.Only one was inscribed as follows: " HB Grant/Craigellackie/Bulla".(0713).Inscriptions is in lead pencil on the back.

000865 - Photograph - 1972 or 1977 - Inverloch - Beach erosion on surf beach - from Hazel Swift

Inverloch Historical Society, Inverloch

Plane - Metal

Hand Tool Preservation Association of Australia Inc,

Metal matching plane - Stanley No. 148

Historical information

This Item is part of the Thomas Caine Collection owned by National Trust of Victoria.

Bottle, glass

Coal Creek Community Park & Museum, Korumburra

Round mid green coloured, thick glass bottle with rounded shoulder.

Inscriptions & Markings

Nil

Newsletter - February 2010

Mount Alexander Vintage Engine Club Inc., Castlemaine

Photograph of workers at Yorkshire Mine, Tarnagulla - Workers at Yorkshire Mine, Tarnagulla

Tarnagulla History Archive, Tarnagulla

Monochrome photograph depicting a group of men wearing work attire, some seated, some standing, with a tall white building in background. In foreground are (left) firewood and (right) a wooden crate. Same as image THA-2019.0053

Historical information

Murray Comrie Collection. This photograph is a reasonable copy created from an older original. Some areas faded. Copy probably made by Murray Comrie in the 1970s.

Inscriptions & Markings

Handwritten on reverse: 'Orig from J A Renshaw... One shift at Yorkshire Mine Tarnagulla, Renshaw far left back'.

Photo - 'Digger'

Melbourne Legacy, Melbourne

Black and white photo of Pat Hanna as a 'Digger' and a two page recollection of the photoshoot with Jack Cato.

Historical information

An iconic image of a soldier, eyes raised to the sky, taken by photographer Jack Cato in 1932. He used the artist/entertainer Pat Hanna as a model in the photoshoot. Pat wrote down his experience in a moving two page document 'The Story Behind the Picture', it tells how he was moved to imagine the action in France when posing. The photo was stored with other items including a letter to Frank (possibly L/- Frank Doolan who was making an attempt to collect items relevant to Legacy's history for an official archive project - see items 01400 to 01404). Pat Hanna was an entertainer, comedian, artist and producer of reveues, plays and movies. One of his first revues was performed just after the armistice in France. A popular show was 'Diggers' that performed in many towns in Australia post-war. He was asked to pose for photographer Jack Cato for the iconic image of a digger shown in 01400. He was a New Zealander who served in the First World War and involved with Legacy for many years. The image is described as the portrait of a soldier, eyes raised to the sky. This portrait s a study which is called 'The spirit of Anzac' or 'The Digger'. The model was Pat Hanna, a New Zealander who served in the First World War, who tried to recreate the "look something between fear and defiance which we have all seen so often, and which will always remain in my memory as typical of our gallant old cobbers 'the Diggers'". A colour image is held in the AWM collection.

Significance

Pat Hanna was an artist with links to Legacy, who kept some of his works in the archive.

Inscriptions & Markings

Handwritten on photo 'Digger' in black ink in Pat Hanna's handwriting. Handwritten on reverse 'The Digger, sometimes ??lly the spirit of Anzac photo Jack Cato model -Pat Hanna' in black ink. Typed on a paper note 'Spirit of Anzac / Pat Hanna'. Stamped with copyright of The Age in blue ink.

Map - Clunes, Mt Greenock, and Talbot Gold Fields, 1883

Federation University Australia Historical Collection (Geoffrey Blainey Research Centre), Mount Helen

A geological plan of the Clunes, Mt Greenock, and Talbot Gold Fields in two parts. .1) This section of the map includes Talbot, Talbot water supply race, Mt Glasgow, Little Green Hill, Middle Hill, Mt Cameron, Ballarat Hill, Bakery Hill, Goodwoman Hill, Scandanavian Lead, Eglinton Swamp, McCallum's Creek, Tullaroop Creek, Dunach, Maryborough Railway, Middle Creek and includes many mines such as Rip Van Winkel, Union Extended, South Greenock, Nicholl's Freehold. .2) This section of the map includes McCallums, Clunes, Green Hill, Mt Beckworth, Mt Gap, Maryborough Reservoir, and includes mines such as Lothair, Bute, Clyde, Clunes Consols, London and Australian, Oriental,

wedge

Churchill Island Heritage Farm, Newhaven

one of three wedges cut from one piece of steel. No relief grooves.

Historical information

Used in conjunction with other wood splitting/cutting tools donated by Wilfred Dungan

Uniform, Naval Jacket

Ringwood RSL Sub-Branch, Ringwood

Blue double breasted naval Jacket with bullion Australia shoulder titles and Petty Officers Badge with QE2 crown, and Cooks Trade Badge. Gold finished buttons.

Certificate - Air Raid Precautions, 1942

Kew Historical Society Inc, Kew

Certificate awarded to Mr. S. J. Gare of 5 Bowen Street, Kew in 1942 after successfully completing an air raid precautions course, dated 25th March 1942.

PHOTOGRAPH

Bendigo Soldiers Memorial Institute Military Museum, Bendigo

Photograph, sepia tone, showing a large group of Women in RAAF uniform, 4 rows deep. Photograph is taken outside a large building. 2 men are seated in the front row. Photograph is a copy of the original.

Historical information

Photograph I believe was taken in England

Photograph - Digital image - Horse and buggy

Greensborough Historical Society, Lower Plenty

Links: 01582.02500 Digital copy of black and white photograph.

Historical information

Photograph of unidentified horse and covered buggy. [Found when cleaning up an old house belonging to a deceased friend/relative of the Partington's]

Document, programme - Sir John Monash Commemoration Service

Melbourne Legacy, Melbourne

01299 Seven sheets of black typing on white paper 01299.1 Folded card and paper insert, black print on white 01299.2 Outside of folded card, pale grey

Historical information

The State Electricity Commission Sub-Branch of the RSL convened a commemoration service for Sir John Monash on Sunday 16 April 1972, which took place at the equestrian statue of Monash at the Shrine. The MC was Legatee D.J. Simonson (President 1970 and great nephew of Sir John), who also laid a wreath on behalf of Melbourne Legacy, and the address was given by Dr. J.A.L. Matheson, Vice Chancellor of Monash University. Matheson spoke of the establishment of the University in 1958 and how appropriate it had been to name it after Monash, comparing the struggle to create a world class university with Monash's struggles on the Western Front. Appropriately Monash had been chairman of the constructing body of the Shrine. In 1923 he was approached to become the first President of Legacy, a position which he declined as he was heavily involved as the Chairman of the State Electricity Commission. However, he pressed Colonel Harold Cohen, to take his place and Cohen became Legacy's first President.

Significance

Legacy still takes part in RSL commemorations, and the links with Monash and the Shrine make this ceremony all the more noteworthy.

Statue

Running Rabbits Military Museum operated by the Upwey Belgrave RSL Sub Branch, Upwey

Small resin statuette of RAR soldier Vietnam

Incomplete coal auger

Coal Creek Community Park & Museum, Korumburra

8436.1 - Coal boring auger bit, handle missing. Tip is single-pointed; point of attachment for handle is rectangular-prism-shaped and the bit appears to be secured by means of welding together interlayered tonques of metal.

Historical information

unknown

Electric Food Mixer

Anglesea and District Historical Society, Anglesea

"Marvel" Electric Food Mixer - two beaters affixed to cylindical component that encases electric motor with cord attached - this component attached to metal stand with swivelling device - all metal painted pale green including rotating stand for placing mixing bowl on - black plastic? handle on moveable top section and circular open holes on top and around the sides.

Inscriptions & Markings

Plaque affixed to cylindrical section reads "75 watt/VOLTS AC DC 25 STYLE 21 No 1304082/MARVEL/Electric Food Mixer/Licensed under United States Patents/No's......

Lead Acetate

Ballarat Base Hospital Trained Nurses League, Ballarat

Ballarat East Post Office Main Road

Ballaarat Mechanics' Institute (BMI Ballarat), Ballarat

Historical information

This photograph is from the Max Harris Collection held by the Ballaraat Mechanics' Institute. Please contact BMI for all print and usage inquiries.

Spoon

Flagstaff Hill Maritime Village, Warrnambool

Unrestored tea spoon from the wreck of the LOCH ARD. The spoon design has a flattened fiddle-back handle, with a thin stem or shank, flared collar, and elongated bowl. The spoons metallic composition is a thin layer of brass alloy which has partially corroded back to a nickel-silver base metal. Traces of original electroplate remaining with verdigris. Five makers marks obscured.

Historical information

This tea spoon is from the wreck of the LOCH ARD, a Loch Line ship of 1,693 tons which sailed from Gravesend, London, on 2 March 1878 with 17 passengers and a crew of 36 under Captain George Gibbs. “The intention was to discharge cargo in Melbourne, before returning to London via the Horn with wool and wheat”. Instead, on 1 June 1878, after 90 days at sea, she struck the sandstone cliffs of Mutton Bird Island on the south west coast of Victoria, and sank with the loss of 52 lives and all her cargo. The manifest of the LOCH ARD listed an array of manufactured goods and bulk metals being exported to the Colony of Victoria, with a declared value of £53,700. (202 bills of lading show an actual invoice value of £68, 456, with insurance underwriting to £30,000 of all cargo). Included in the manifest is the item of “Tin hardware & cutlery £7,530”. This teaspoon is one of 482 similar items of electro-plated cutlery from the LOCH ARD site, comprising spoons and forks of various sizes but all sharing the same general shape or design and metallic composition. 49 of these pieces display a legible makers’ mark — the initials “W” and “P” placed within a raised diamond outline, which is in turn contained within a sunken crown shape — identifying the manufacturer as William Page & Co of Birmingham. An electroplater’s makers’ marks, unlike sterling silver hallmarks, are not consistent identifiers of quality or date and place of manufacture. A similar line of five impressions was usually made to impress the consumer with an implication of industry standards, but what each one actually signified was not regulated and so they varied according to the whim of the individual foundry. In this case, the maker’s marks are often obscured by sedimentary accretion or removed by corrosion after a century of submersion in the ocean. However sufficient detail has survived to indicate that these samples of electro-plated cutlery probably originated from the same consignment in the LOCH ARD’s cargo. The following descriptions of maker’s marks are drawn from 255 tea spoons, 125 dessert spoons, and 99 table forks. These marks are clearly visible in 66 instances, while the same sequence of general outlines, or depression shapes, is discernible in another 166 examples. 1. A recessed Crown containing a raised Diamond outline and the initials “W” and “P” (the recognised trademark of William Page & Co) 2. An impressed Ellipse containing a raised, pivoted, Triangle in its lower part and bearing a Resurrection Cross on its upper section (a possible dissenting church symbol reflecting religious affiliation); OR a rounded Square impression containing a raised, ‘lazy’, letter “B” (possibly mimicking sterling silver hallmark signifying city of manufacture i.e. Birmingham) 3. An impressed rounded Square filled with a raised Maltese Cross (the base metal composite of nickel silver was also known as ‘German silver’ after its Berlin inventors in 1823) 4. A recessed Circle containing a Crab or Scarab Beetle image; OR a recessed Circle containing a rotated ‘fleur de lys’ or ‘fasces’ design 5. A depressed Diamond shape enclosing a large raised letter “R” and a small raised letter “D” (mimicking the U.K. Patent Office stamp which abbreviated the term ‘registered’ to “RD”, but also included date and class of patent) Suggested trade names for William Page & Co’s particular blend of brass plating are ‘roman silver’ or ‘silverite’. This copper alloy polishes to a lustrous gold when new, discolouring to a murky grey with greenish hue when neglected. HISTORY OF THE LOCH ARD The LOCH ARD belonged to the famous Loch Line which sailed many ships from England to Australia. Built in Glasgow by Barclay, Curdle and Co. in 1873, the LOCH ARD was a three-masted square rigged iron sailing ship. The ship measured 262ft 7" (79.87m) in length, 38ft (11.58m) in width, 23ft (7m) in depth and had a gross tonnage of 1693 tons. The LOCH ARD's main mast measured a massive 150ft (45.7m) in height. LOCH ARD made three trips to Australia and one trip to Calcutta before its final voyage. LOCH ARD left England on March 2, 1878, under the command of Captain Gibbs, a newly married, 29 year old. She was bound for Melbourne with a crew of 37, plus 17 passengers and a load of cargo. The general cargo reflected the affluence of Melbourne at the time. On board were straw hats, umbrella, perfumes, clay pipes, pianos, clocks, confectionary, linen and candles, as well as a heavier load of railway irons, cement, lead and copper. There were items included that intended for display in the Melbourne International Exhibition in 1880. The voyage to Port Phillip was long but uneventful. At 3am on June 1, 1878, Captain Gibbs was expecting to see land and the passengers were becoming excited as they prepared to view their new homeland in the early morning. But LOCH ARD was running into a fog which greatly reduced visibility. Captain Gibbs was becoming anxious as there was no sign of land or the Cape Otway lighthouse. At 4am the fog lifted. A man aloft announced that he could see breakers. The sheer cliffs of Victoria's west coast came into view, and Captain Gibbs realised that the ship was much closer to them than expected. He ordered as much sail to be set as time would permit and then attempted to steer the vessel out to sea. On coming head on into the wind, the ship lost momentum, the sails fell limp and LOCH ARD's bow swung back. Gibbs then ordered the anchors to be released in an attempt to hold its position. The anchors sank some 50 fathoms - but did not hold. By this time LOCH ARD was among the breakers and the tall cliffs of Mutton Bird Island rose behind the ship. Just half a mile from the coast, the ship's bow was suddenly pulled around by the anchor. The captain tried to tack out to sea, but the ship struck a reef at the base of Mutton Bird Island, near Port Campbell. Waves broke over the ship and the top deck was loosened from the hull. The masts and rigging came crashing down knocking passengers and crew overboard. When a lifeboat was finally launched, it crashed into the side of LOCH ARD and capsized. Tom Pearce, who had launched the boat, managed to cling to its overturned hull and shelter beneath it. He drifted out to sea and then on the flood tide came into what is now known as LOCH ARD Gorge. He swam to shore, bruised and dazed, and found a cave in which to shelter. Some of the crew stayed below deck to shelter from the falling rigging but drowned when the ship slipped off the reef into deeper water. Eva Carmichael had raced onto deck to find out what was happening only to be confronted by towering cliffs looming above the stricken ship. In all the chaos, Captain Gibbs grabbed Eva and said, "If you are saved Eva, let my dear wife know that I died like a sailor". That was the last Eva Carmichael saw of the captain. She was swept off the ship by a huge wave. Eva saw Tom Pearce on a small rocky beach and yelled to attract his attention. He dived in and swam to the exhausted woman and dragged her to shore. He took her to the cave and broke open case of brandy which had washed up on the beach. He opened a bottle to revive the unconscious woman. A few hours later Tom scaled a cliff in search of help. He followed hoof prints and came by chance upon two men from nearby Glenample Station three and a half miles away. In a state of exhaustion, he told the men of the tragedy. Tom returned to the gorge while the two men rode back to the station to get help. By the time they reached LOCH ARD Gorge, it was cold and dark. The two shipwreck survivors were taken to Glenample Station to recover. Eva stayed at the station for six weeks before returning to Ireland, this time by steamship. In Melbourne, Tom Pearce received a hero's welcome. He was presented with the first gold medal of the Royal Humane Society of Victoria and a £1000 cheque from the Victorian Government. Concerts were performed to honour the young man's bravery and to raise money for those who lost family in the LOCH ARD disaster. Of the 54 crew members and passengers on board, only two survived: the apprentice, Tom Pearce and the young woman passenger, Eva Carmichael, who lost all of her family in the tragedy. Ten days after the LOCH ARD tragedy, salvage rights to the wreck were sold at auction for £2,120. Cargo valued at £3,000 was salvaged and placed on the beach, but most washed back into the sea when another storm developed. The wreck of LOCH ARD still lies at the base of Mutton Bird Island. Much of the cargo has now been salvaged and some was washed up into what is now known as LOCH ARD Gorge. Cargo and artefacts have also been illegally salvaged over many years before protective legislation was introduced. One of the most unlikely pieces of cargo to have survived the shipwreck was a Minton porcelain peacock - one of only seven in the world. The peacock was destined for the Melbourne International Exhibition in 1880. It had been well packed, which gave it adequate protection during the violent storm. Today, the Minton peacock can be seen at the Flagstaff Hill Maritime Museum in Warrnambool. From Australia's most dramatic shipwreck it has now become Australia's most valuable shipwreck artefact and is one of very few 'objects' on the Victorian State Heritage Register.

Significance

The LOCH ARD shipwreck is of State significance – Victorian Heritage Register S 417. Flagstaff Hill’s collection of artefacts from LOCH ARD is significant for being one of the largest collections of artefacts from this shipwreck in Victoria. It is significant for its association with the shipwreck, which is on the Victorian Heritage Register (VHR S417). The collection is significant because of the relationship between the objects, as together they have a high potential to interpret the story of the LOCH ARD. The LOCH ARD collection is archaeologically significant as the remains of a large international passenger and cargo ship. The LOCH ARD collection is historically significant for representing aspects of Victoria’s shipping history and its potential to interpret sub-theme 1.5 of Victoria’s Framework of Historical Themes (living with natural processes). The collection is also historically significant for its association with the LOCH ARD, which was one of the worst and best known shipwrecks in Victoria’s history.

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